In order to test for the effect of affectedness
on middle acceptability, for example, it was possible to compare four middle sentences with affected subjects with four middle sentences with unaffected subjects (groups 1 and 5).
definite or human or otherwise more salient participants, can be said to be more affected than less individuated ones (Naess 2004: 1202); in her interpretation, this parameter of affectedness
is central to the characterisation of objects in a typically transitive clause.
Befindlichkeit, Heidegger's translation of Augustine's affectio, is a multidimensional term (less helpfully rendered by the psychologically tinged "state of mind" or "worldly disposition") encompassing affectedness
, thrownness (Geworfenheit), facticity (Faktizitat), and mood (Stimmung) or "attunement-to-things" (Gestimmtsein), as well as disclosedness, discoveredness, and resoluteness.
Despite the fact that the basis for inclusion was relatively comprehensive, the division of stakeholders into the three categories of (inter) governmental, business, and civil society actors does not adequately reflect the actual patterns of affectedness
It is hypothesized that affectedness
and value orientation determine one's acceptance of a new tax and of an increase in tax rates, respectively.
The difference between (9) and (10) on the other hand is that in (9) the degree of affectedness
of the target person is more intensive than that in (10): the washing of Robert's hair affects Robert to a greater extent than the switching off the light does to Ola.
Some verbs, such as diti 'stab' in (4c) and (4d), even allow an alternation in the coding of a P or S with either a prefix or a free pronoun, with a difference in the degree of affectedness
The l-participle implies no transitivity (also compare its probable diachronic development from intransitive and reflexive verbs; Kuryzowicz 1975:235), cannot grammatically code affectedness
of the target domain participant, which results in its non-permanence.
Theme is the semantic role of an entity described as being in a state or undergoing a state change (Jackendoff 1976; some authors prefer "patient" for the latter, especially when causal affectedness
But Spinoza found an inner liveliness in things, even an inchoate "perception," if we take the term in a broad and general sense, indicating, as it were, a Stoic affectedness
of each thing by all the rest.
2010: 20) interpret this type of semantic difference in terms of the affectedness
of the T and G argument, respectively.
As we can see in this Figure, the only difference between dative and accusative scenarios that matters, at least for our discussion, is precisely that possibility of a concrete or abstract direct affectedness
of the landmark.
Unfortunately, I lack the relevant data to state explicitly whether the change in the coding of the Causee follows from affectedness
or from syntactic properties of the clause in question.
So, it is not clear whether there is a single all-encompassing definition that applies to all NPs in object position, lf we accept, for instance, that this is the "affected" argument, it turns out that different types of affectedness
have been described (Dixon 1991), ranging from the minimal contact of touch, where no change occurs in the object, through rub, where the surface may be affected, and squeeze, which implies a temporary change of shape, to smash, where the Theme loses its physical integrity (5.
Thus, verbs taking a malefactive source, like 'steal', arguably outrank 'give' verbs in affectedness
(of the third participant); therefore, they are likely to be found in the double object construction (see the domain of double object constructions in Jamul Tiipay) and even may be preferably eligible for this construction, compared to 'give' verbs (as, for example, in Mandarin Chinese; see MHC for discussion).