Recently the adrenal medulla
has been examined with this method (18,19).
New species of human tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA are produced in variable amounts in adrenal medulla
and are overexpressed in progressive supranuclear palsy.
Control of enzymatic synthesis of adrenaline in the adrenal medulla
by adrenal cortical steroids.
Differentiating cellular schwannoma from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as neurofibroma, as well as a recently described tumor of the adrenal medulla
called sustentaculoma, by histology and immunohistochemistry alone can be challenging.
Pheochromocytomas and catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas, also referred to as extraadrenal pheochromocytomas, are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
and sympathetic ganglia.
Intraabdominal paragangliomas are most commonly phaeochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla
, while extraadrenal paragangliomas can arise in diverse locations.
Microscopic evaluation revealed a benign tumor, composed of spindle cells with Schwann differentiation and ganglion cells with diffuse distribution, arising from the adrenal medulla
and separated from the cortex with smooth margins without any capsule.
Approximately 85% arise from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla
, and 15% arise from chromaffin tissue in extra-adrenal sites extending from the neck to the pelvis, although most are found intra-abdominally.
Tumors of the adrenal medulla
are called pheochromocytomas, while tumors that arise from the extra-adrenal paraganglia are called paragangliomas.
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
are derived from multipotent neural crest cells in the developing embryo.
Adrenaline Adrenal medulla
Triggered by nervousness by
Part of the sympathomimetic effect is mediated by nicotinic stimulation of receptors on the adrenal medulla
, leading to release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla
or other sites of the sympathetic nervous system and most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than five years.
The nicotinic receptors are found in all autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla
and the neuromuscular junction.
Okay, so the catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla
in response to stress to stimulate an autonomic nerve action can come in rather handy when you have suffered a heart attack because of a) horrific spread betting losses, b) your partner upping sticks and leaving you or c) a combination of both.