Determinants of adrenal androgen
hypofunction in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis.
The adrenal glands produce testosterone, pregnenolone, aldosterone, DHEA, progesterone, estrogen, and adrenal androgens
conducted a study showing that intratumoral steroid biosynthesis contributes less androgen to the tumors than circulating adrenal androgens
, suggesting the blockade of CYP17 as an interesting therapeutic target in AIPC patients (42).
Not surprisingly, adrenal androgens
and bone parameters were lower among the 12 postmenopausal CAH patients, compared with the 14 still premenopausal women, he said.
Since any change in HPA-axis activity affects adrenocortical output generally, episodic adrenal androgen
secretion would be reduced in breastfeeding women in response to stressful situations and/or to suckling.
The mechanism by which the vitamin works is unknown, the textbook notes, but may be related to alteration of blood levels of various hormones, including adrenal androgens
The lowering of adrenal androgens
, which are known to drive tumor growth, has now become a key treatment goal for patients with CRPC.
The adrenal component to androgen excess may be more prevalent in younger and leaner patients, making the analysis of adrenal androgens
an especially important clinical consideration in nonobese PCOS or suspected PCOS patients.
12,13,16,17] Potential mechanisms accounting for this include intratumoral amplification of the androgen receptor (AR), mutations of the AR, changes in levels of AR co-factors, increased expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis, enhanced intracellular conversion of adrenal androgens
to testosterone and DHT within the tumour micro-environment, and ligand-independent activation of the AR.
The clinical symptoms of CAH directly result from either the deficiencies in mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid production or from the overproduction of adrenal androgens
Charles Hughes, MD] * Testosterone and Adrenal Androgens
in Men; Estrogen and Progesterone Replacement in Women.
These drugs, which are established second-line treatments of advanced breast cancer, block the biosynthesis of estrogen by binding to the enzyme aromatase and blocking it from converting adrenal androgens
to estrogen in tissues.
Although this pioneering study can be criticized for its lack of an experimental control group, its extremely limited sample size, and its use of a physically traumatized participant population, the results strongly suggested that adrenal androgens
do influence what Waxenberg et al.