The areas of abnormal enhancement had been sampled in 2011, and at that time, pathology results had revealed sclerosing adenosis
The dataset consisted of 29 malignancies and 28 benign lesions, as follows: 22 invasive carcinomas (2 lobular, 20 invasive ductal carcinoma), 7 invasive + ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 9 fibroadenomas, 6 fibrocystic changes, 4 sclerosing adenosis
, 2 lymph nodes, 2 proliferative dysplasia, 1 fat necrosis, 1 columnar cell hyperplasia without atypia, 1 epithelial hyperplasia, 1 post-surgical scar, 1 radial scar (a border-line lesion which was excised after initial diagnosis at core biopsy, with the same result, and therefore it was considered benign in this study).
The most common benign lesion encountered was fibrocystic change, followed by sclerosing adenosis
. We found fibroadenoma, classically a condition encountered in younger individuals, to be more common among older patients.
It covers histopathology, the human papillomavirus, examination using colposcopy, colposcopy of the normal cervix, cytology and screening, diagnosis, management, and vaginal, vulval, perianal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, as well as genital tract adenosis
and infective and other conditions causing confusion in diagnosis.
(2-3) Complex fibroadenomas contain other proliferative changes such as sclerosing adenosis
, duct epithelial hyperplasia, and epithelial calcification and are associated with slightly increased risk of cancer.
The false positive results occur because of some benign diseases with hypercellularity like cellular fibroadenoma, proliferative fibrocystic disease, phyllodes tumor, lactational changes, sclerosing adenosis
, and so forth, and in lesions with atypia like postradiation, fat necrosis, and radial scar .
Rad6 has been implicated in early breast cancer development since an increase in Rad6 levels is observed in adenosis
and benign hyperplasias as compared to normal tissue .
Summary of histopathologic diagnosis Histopathologic diagnosis Histopathology coding High grade Low grade Total lesion lesion number of cases Adenocarcinoma 2 0 2 Atrophy 0 2 2 Chronic cervicitis (CC) 0 42 42 Cervical intraepithelial 0 2 2 neoplasia (CIN 1) Cervical intraepithelial 3 0 3 neoplasia (CIN 3) Condyloma 0 7 7 Dysplastic glands can't r/o 1 0 1 adenocarcinoma Endocervlcal polyp (ECP) 0 6 6 Granulation tissue 0 1 1 Microglandular adenosis
0 4 4 Radiation changes 0 6 6 Squamous metaplasia 0 26 26 Suspicious for malignancy 1 0 1 Total 7 96 103 Table 2.
Benign lesions included fibrocystic disease, sclerosing adenosis
, fibroadenoma, ductal ectasia and lipoid necrosis.
In contrast, in cases of sclerosing adenosis
, a benign breast lesion, ATM is expressed in both the epithelial and myoepithelial cells.
(5) Diagnostic results can be false positive due to misinterpretation of lobular cancerization and sclerosing adenosis
. False negative results can be due to masking of the foci of disease by inflammatory cells or falsely identifying tumor cells as histiocytes.
Once more common causes of unilateral breast swelling are excluded, less common etiologies, such as duct ectasia, mammary adenosis
or fat necrosis, and blunt force trauma, should be considered.
Included in the histologic differential diagnosis of salivary gland SMEC are sclerosing polycystic adenosis
, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and necrotizing sialometaplasia.
Microscopically there was a non-encapsulated lesion with a combination of stroma and cells in the terminal duct lobular units and there was superimposed sclerosing adenosis
indicative of a hamartoma.