canis infections (e.g., fever, headache, anorexia, asthenia, and adenitis
* FNAC of swelling done thrice at three different location and result of which were given as: Submandibular adenitis
The application of ultrasound criteria for malignancy in differentiating tuberculous cervical adenitis
from metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The diagnosis of mediastinal mycobacterial adenitis
(due to either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or mycobacterium avium intracellulare) using EBUS-TBNA has been described in immunocompetant as well as immunocompromised patients14,15.
Histopathology demonstrated salt gland adenitis
with extensive squamous metaplasia.
Immunologically, normal newborn has double the incidence of BCG adenitis
compared with older infants and children.,
Other high suspicion scenarios include prolonged fever with unexplained/culture-negative shock, or antibiotic treatment failure for cervical adenitis
or retro/parapharyngeal phlegmon.
This may reflect gastroenteritis or mesentery adenitis
Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis
syndrome (PFAPA) seen with periodic fever is first described by Marshall et al.
Almost similar results are reported in a study conducted in Kathmandu, in which causes of cervical lymphadenopathy were tuberculous lymphadenitis (54%), reactive hyperplasia (33%) and metastatic lesion in lymph nodes (11.1%).15 Our reports are in tandem with another local study in which out of total 220 patients with enlarged neck lymph nodes, tuberculous lymphadenitis was the most common occurrence (70.45%).16,17 All of the tuberculous patients studied by Chaudry N, 58% presented with cervical adenitis
coli (STEC), Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) linked to Campylobacter, and invasive illness by Salmonella or acute abdominal pain due to mesenteric adenitis
and Yersinia enterocolitica [7, 8].
% Age < 1yr Age 1-3 yrs CT Results (N = 195) Frequency (%) (%) Hypodense collection 95 48.7 42.5 51.9 Rim enhancing lesion 51 26.2 30.0 22.8 Lymphadenopathy/cervical 24 12.3 15 8.9 adenitis
Loculated lesion 27 13.8 2.5 6.3 Sinusitis 4 2.1 2.5 2.5 Jugular thrombus 3 1.5 0 3.8 Parotitis 2 1.0 2.5 0 Mastoiditis 1 0.5 0 0 Mediastinitis 1 0.5 0 1.3 Age 4-7 yrs Age 8-18 yrs CT Results (N = 195) (%) (%) Hypodense collection 48.8 48.6 Rim enhancing lesion 41.5 11.4 Lymphadenopathy/cervical 7.3 14.3 adenitis
Loculated lesion 7.3 2.9 Sinusitis 2.4 0 Jugular thrombus 0 0 Parotitis 2.4 0 Mastoiditis 0 2.9 Mediastinitis 0 0 Table 6: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
LN accepted as 'reactive adenitis
' if microscopic examination showed none of the malignant cells, granulomatous inflammation or anthracotic pigmentation.
If left untreated, complications ranging from suppurative adenitis
to hepatic and renal failure and fulminant septicemia have been described in literature .
It is manifested as recurrent episodes of fever associated with tonsillitis, aphthous ulceration, stomatitis, and cervical adenitis
. It is initially described in children by Marshall in 1987 [1, 2].