Impacts of trunk and soil injections of low rates of imidacloprid on hemlock woolly adelgid
(Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae) health.
The hemlock woolly adelgid
is a poppyseed-sized invasive insect that hitched a ride from southern Japan - probably on an ornamental hemlock tree - and landed in Richmond, Va., in 1951.
The tree crown distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid
, Adelges tsugae (Hem., Adelgidae) from randomized branch sampling.
Bugs like the hemlock woolly adelgid
, the southern pine beetle, and the tick are unable to survive extreme cold temperatures, although generally when an invasive species has established a new home, it probably won't disappear completely, despite the weather.
The reason being, is that the bitter cold kills the hemlock's adversary, the hemlock woolly adelgid
, a tiny insect pest.
More recent perturbations include the introduction of the balsam woody adelgid
(Adelges piceae), causing significant mortality of Fraser fir at the upper elevation limits of northern hardwood distribution, and the beech bark disease on American beech (Fagus grandifolia) throughout [1, 9].
The name of this bug is the hemlock woolly adelgid
. Hailing from southeast Asia, it has made several entries into North America.
caroliniana Engelm) are currently declining rapidly due to infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid
(HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) and little regeneration is expected (Orwig and Foster, 1998; Preisser et al., 2011).
In the same ecological zones of the pine another adelgid
species, Pterochloroides persicae, commonly called Peach Trunk Aphid (PTA) is a serious pest of many pomes and stone fruits acquiring the resistance against many groups of pesticides (Ateyyat and Abu- Darwish et al., 2009).
Influence of tree growth rate, shoot size and foliar chemistry on the abundance and performance of a galling adelgid
. Functional Ecology, vol.
Eastern hemlock is threatened with decline due to the hemlock woolly adelgid
(Adelges tsugae) with outbreaks causing widespread mortality of hemlock in Connecticut and elsewhere in the Appalachian Mountains (Orwig et al.
But over the last few decades, the eastern and Carolina hemlocks have been under attack by a small sucking insect called the hemlock woolly adelgid
(Adelges tsugae), or HWA.
Dead-standing Fraser fir trees killed by balsam woolly adelgid
, an Asian parasite introduced in 1963, surround the tower.
Eastern hemlock is currently being threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid
(Adelges tsugae), a defoliating insect.
Over the past two decades, several exotic pests, such as the balsam woolly adelgid
, Adelges piceae (Rathzeburg), beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, and hemlock woolly adelgid
, Adelges isugae (Annand), have become established in Tennessee and have the potential to dramatically change the composition of the fauna and flora within the area (Hughes, 1993; Lambdin et al., 2005; Vance, 1995).