Following Miami Beach, the court has continued to uphold the bright-line principle and the use of ad valorem tax revenues to pay debt service without a referendum.
The court held that, because Escambia County's proposed bonds might be payable from ad valorem tax revenues, the bonds were "payable from ad valorem taxation" and, thus, triggered the constitutional referendum requirement.
Koenig  compares administered prices, a quota system, and a tax system in which both a specific and an ad valorem tax are applied to the externality-generating good.
The first approach focuses on noncompetitive markets, and often concludes that an ad valorem tax can raise a fixed amount of revenue more efficiently than can a specific tax [12; 32].
Note that in the ad valorem tax model, [Beta] is less than 1 if the total revenue function is strictly concave with respect to L holding K constant.
Consequently, the impact of an ad valorem tax on the output depends upon the role that labor and capital play in generating revenue in regulated monopoly.
Given a set of linear demand and supply functions an ad valorem tax v based on the gross demand price [P.
Consequently, the Ramsey rule applies to both demand and supply ad valorem taxes: that is, it is valid for an ad valorem tax be it levied on suppliers or consumers.
The 'BBB' rating is based upon the unlimited ad valorem tax
pledged to repay the bonds, the substantial tax base presently within the district, reserve funds in place to make up shortfalls in property tax revenues or developer contributions, and oversight by the City of Peoria.
The 'BBB' rating on the county's limited ad valorem tax bonds is based on the desirability of the oceanfront location, the short duration of the bonds, and the additional taxing capacity that exists under the maximum tax rate allowed by county ordinance.
The bonds are secured by a limited ad valorem tax pledge within two municipal service taxing units (MSTUs).
The 'AA+' GO bond rating reflects the district's substantial, diverse, and growing tax base as well as the lack of any operating claim on the unlimited ad valorem tax
revenue stream securing the debt.
The bonds are general obligations of the city, secured and payable from a limited ad valorem tax
levied on taxable property within the city.
The bonds are ultimately secured by an unlimited ad valorem tax
pledge of all taxable property within the district, encompassing most of Montgomery and Prince George's Counties, Maryland.
The bonds are direct obligations of the district, payable from a limited ad valorem tax
levied against all taxable property in the district.