In Asian Gesneriaceae, actinomorphic
genera Ramonda, Conandron, Bournea, Thamnocharis, and Tengia are on the posterior branches of phylogenetic trees, and all are clustered respectively with their zygomorphic ancestors (Wang et al., 2010).
Hietz & Hietz-Seifert (1994) suggest sphingid moths as the most likely visitors, because of their long spreading stamina and pistil exerted from an open actinomorphic
Corolla symmetry: actinomorphic
= 0; zygomorphic = 1.
Similarities between flowers of Adenanthemum Conwentz and Itea include that the flowers are hermaphroditic, pedicellate, have a pentamerous and actinomorphic
perianth with distinct whorls of sepals and petals, a valvate corolla, a haplostemonous androecium with antesepalous stamens, dorsifixed anthers with introrse dehiscence, a superior ovary (ovary position is variable in Itea), two fused styles, and a single, capitate stigma (Conwentz, 1886; Kubitzki, 2007a).
2 cm in diameter; floral bracts white, linear, acuminate, membranaceous, 4-8 mm x 1 mm, entire; flowers polystichous, ascendent to divaricate, numerous, densely disposed, actinomorphic
, pedicellate, the pedicels 2.2-2.7 mm long; sepals rose-colored, triangular to triangular-oblong, 4.6-5.2 x 1.9-2.7 mm, acute, entire; petals rose-colored, extended, widely elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 6.5-8.5 x 4-4.7 mm, entire, rounded; stamens subequal, shorter than the petals, filaments white tinged with rose at the apex, laminar at the base, linear-triangular, 2.8-4 mm long, anthers purple to dark purple, dorsifixed, oblong, 1.5-1.8 mm long; ovary vestigial, purple, ovoid to globose, 3.7-3.9 mm long, 3.2--3.4 mm in diameter.
Furthermore, the unspecialized actinomorphic
flower of H.
Isolation and sequence analysis of two CYC-like genes, SiCYCIA and SiCACIB, from zygomorphic and actinomorphic
cultivars of Saintpaulia ionantha (Gesneriaceae).
(1985) and Kubitzki (1987), we consider cyperoid flowers to be derived from a typical trimerous, actinomorphic
, diplostemonous, monocot flower with a superior syncarpous pistil (e.g.
He pointed out, however, that several genera of Mutisieae differ in having actinomorphic
or ligulate corollas and ecaudate anthers (the last feature in some genera of Barnadesiinae).
Florets isomorphic, bisexual, rarely the marginal ones female with staminodes, corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-funnelform to subcampanulate, shallowly to deeply five-lobed; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth to papillose, filaments smooth to papillose at the base; style bifid to bilobed, branches dorsally papillose.
Florets dimorphic, bisexual; marginal florets with corollas bilabiate, outer lip, expanded; central florets with corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed; anther apical appendages apiculate, tails papillose; style bifid, branches dorsally smooth.
Florets bisexual, corollas actinomorphic
, tubular-funnelform to sub-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, exceptionally bilabiate; anthers mostly exserted, apical appendages acuminate, tails long, smooth to papillose, free to those of adjacent anthers often connate; style cleft into two short, bilobed branches, the branches erect, apically rounded, dorsally rugulose to papillose with the branch apex often smooth and the papillae extending beyond the bifurcation point onto the shaft, occasionally styles bifid, branches recurved and dorsally smooth.
Florets isomorphic, bisexual, corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anthers exserted, apical appendages short-acuminate, tails smooth, free to often connate with the tails of adjacent stamens; style bilobed, dorsally papillose much below the bifurcation point.
Flowers showy to inconspicuous, perfect to imperfect, usually 4- or 5-merous, actinomorphic