In Asian Gesneriaceae, actinomorphic
genera Ramonda, Conandron, Bournea, Thamnocharis, and Tengia are on the posterior branches of phylogenetic trees, and all are clustered respectively with their zygomorphic ancestors (Wang et al.
macropetala have helicoiform actinomorphic
green corollas, spirally twisted petals, and the stamens are exposed.
limb might limit further elongation and expansion of the apex where the three meristematic areas are located and from where most of the morphological variation is derived ("tails," "wings," "antennae," etc.
Similarities between flowers of Adenanthemum Conwentz and Itea include that the flowers are hermaphroditic, pedicellate, have a pentamerous and actinomorphic
perianth with distinct whorls of sepals and petals, a valvate corolla, a haplostemonous androecium with antesepalous stamens, dorsifixed anthers with introrse dehiscence, a superior ovary (ovary position is variable in Itea), two fused styles, and a single, capitate stigma (Conwentz, 1886; Kubitzki, 2007a).
2 cm in diameter; floral bracts white, linear, acuminate, membranaceous, 4-8 mm x 1 mm, entire; flowers polystichous, ascendent to divaricate, numerous, densely disposed, actinomorphic
, pedicellate, the pedicels 2.
Furthermore, the unspecialized actinomorphic
flower of H.
b) Tubular (0+5 corolla lobes): actinomorphic
, limb five-lobed at the apex, the lobes usually deeply or very deeply incised (Fig.
Florets isomorphic, bisexual, rarely the marginal ones female with staminodes, corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-funnelform to subcampanulate, shallowly to deeply five-lobed; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth to papillose, filaments smooth to papillose at the base; style bifid to bilobed, branches dorsally papillose.
Florets dimorphic, bisexual; marginal florets with corollas bilabiate, outer lip, expanded; central florets with corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed; anther apical appendages apiculate, tails papillose; style bifid, branches dorsally smooth.
Florets bisexual, corollas actinomorphic
, tubular-funnelform to sub-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, exceptionally bilabiate; anthers mostly exserted, apical appendages acuminate, tails long, smooth to papillose, free to those of adjacent anthers often connate; style cleft into two short, bilobed branches, the branches erect, apically rounded, dorsally rugulose to papillose with the branch apex often smooth and the papillae extending beyond the bifurcation point onto the shaft, occasionally styles bifid, branches recurved and dorsally smooth.
Florets isomorphic, bisexual, corolla actinomorphic
, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anthers exserted, apical appendages short-acuminate, tails smooth, free to often connate with the tails of adjacent stamens; style bilobed, dorsally papillose much below the bifurcation point.
Flowers showy to inconspicuous, perfect to imperfect, usually 4- or 5-merous, actinomorphic
Zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical) flowers are believed to be more specialized and advanced compared with actinomorphic
(radially symmetrical) flowers (Carlquist, 1969; Stebbins, 1992).
Flowers perfect, rarely functionally dioecious, actinomorphic
, very rarely slightly zygomorphic, almost always 5-merous except for gynoecium of two carpels (rarely more).
Flowers usually regular, showy and sympetalous; actinomorphic
, rarely slightly zygomorphic; bisexual, rarely unisexual.