fragment and synchondrosis were easily identified, and the borders of the synchondrosis were hypertrophic.
Operative methods included four acromial
arthroplasties, two tenorrhapies (i.
A circumference measurement of the right arm (mid-arm circumference, MAC) was performed using a tape measure placed midway between the subject's acromial
and olecranon processes.
The articulation of the distal end of the clavicle with the acromial
process of the scapula forms the acromioclavicular (AC) joint (Fig.
Elevated joint reaction forces may increase polyethylene component wear and increase risk of aseptic glenoid loosening, acromial
stress fractures, and deltoid fatigue.
Arm circumference was measured (tape measure) at Pre and Post-2 at a position 60% distal between the acromial
process and the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
Subjects had retroreflective hypo-allergenic markers with adhesive backing placed bilaterally on the acromial
processes, lateral humeral epicondyles, ulnar styloids, anterior superior iliac crests, superior border of the greater trochanters, lateral femoral epicondyles, inferior tip of the lateral malleous, posterior tip of the calcaneus and dorsum of the feet in line with the calcaneal markers (standard Helen Hayes marker system--Figure 1) (Motion Analysis Corp.
20,22-26) For this reason, LG designs are associated with less efficient deltoids than MG designs; therefore, the deltoid force required to elevate the arm is greater for LG designs, which theoretically can have negative implications on the maximum range of motion achieved postoperatively, the ability to achieve stable glenoid fixation, and also the rate of acromial
stress fractures (due to the increased shear force generated by the deltoid).
thickness was also observed to be significantly different between male and female scapula; this data relates to the strength of the acromion, and it may be useful to predict acromial
stress fractures, a common complication of rTSA.
30) Given that deltoid fatigue and acromial
stress issues and loss of external rotation are recognized postoperative problems, (31) this data clearly shows that the need for subscapularis repair should be evaluated on an individual basis.
With external impingement, the golfer experiences pain when the rotator cuff impinges between the greater tuberosity and acromion upon shoulder elevation due to a decrease in the normal subacromial space from acromial
spurs and inflamed bursal tissue.
Several investigators have described transferring a small acromial
bone block with the coracoacromial ligament.