The control group comprised 46 randomly selected children who came to the pediatric outpatient department with non-ear, nose, and throat (ENT) complaints (e.g., abdominal disorders) and who had no previous history of foreign body in the external acoustic meatus.
Prevalence of collapse and narrowing of the external acoustic meatus when using supra-aural earphones, observed in the study population (N = 436) Observed Condition n Prevalence Bilateral collapse 45 10.3 RE collapse + LE narrowing 5 1.1 LE collapse + RE narrowing 0 -- Bilateral narrowing 36 8.3 RE narrowing + normal LE 6 1.4 LE narrowing + normal RE 3 0.7 RE = right ear; LE = left ear Table 2.
Figure 1 illustrates the determination of Frankfurt's horizontal plane by positioning a stainless steel wire from highest point of the external acoustic meatus to the lowest point of the orbit, parallel to the floor.
All necropsied birds had hemopericardium due to RAR at the point of the junction with the vena cava, and 85% of them had blood in the oral cavity and external acoustic meatus. The vena cava and its caudal branches, the intestinal vessels, and the sinus durae matris and sinus saggitalis were distended.