Soon, in other work, we used triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate based IL as the pre-catalyst in the first stage, in which the acid value
of crude palm oil was reduced from 6.98 to 1.24 mg KOH/g of oil followed by the use of alkali-catalyzed transesterification in the second stage .
Oleochemical parameters (X [+ or -] SD *) Peroxide value (meq [kg.sup.-1]) 5.65 [+ or -] 0.04 Acid value
(mg [KOH.sup.-1] [g.sup.-1]) 0.09 [+ or -] 0.00 Saponification value (mg [KOH.sup.-1] 192.80 [+ or -] 0.10 [g.sup.-1]) Iodine value (g [I.sup.2] 100 [g.sup.-1]) 62.80 [+ or -] 0.30 Refractive index (40[degrees]C) 1.468 [+ or -] 0.001 Melting point ([degrees]C) 43.90 [+ or -] 0.10 * X mean of values found; SD * standard deviation.
Conclusion: The waste frying oil resulting from exposure to moisture and oxygen at high temperatures developed high free fatty acids (Acid value
;8.98 mg KOH/ g oil) and peroxide values (29.7 mEq/Kg oil).
Particular Diesel Rice Bran Oil Density 731 914 @32 [degrees]C (Kg/[m.sup.3]) Acid Value
mg -- 1.178 (KOH/lit) FFA (%) -- 0.589 Kinematic Viscosity 4.1 43.16 @32 [degrees]C (cSt) Viscosity 2.99 39.44 (Ns/m2) Flash Point ([degrees]C) 74 -- Fire Point ([degrees]C) 79 -- Particular Rice Bran Oil Method of Test Bio Diesel Density 875 Specific @32 [degrees]C Gravity Bottle (Kg/[m.sup.3]) Acid Value
mg 0.448 IS:548-1964 (KOH/lit) FFA (%) 0.224 IS:548-1964 Kinematic Viscosity 5.81 Redwood Viscometer @32 [degrees]C (cSt) for Bio Diesel, Saybolt for Oil Viscosity 5.08 (Ns/m2) Flash Point ([degrees]C) 176 Pensky Martin Apparatus Fire Point ([degrees]C) 183 Pensky Martin Apparatus
The analysis of [F.sub.4] half-seeds from [F.sub.3] plants derived from selected [F.sub.3] half-seeds with a putative genotype Es1Es1es2es2 showed a stearic acid range between 79 g [kg.sup.-1] and 124 g [kg.sup.-1], with an average stearic acid value
of 98 g [kg.sup.-1] (Fig.
Once again, these should be low acid value
resins with excellent solubility parameters.
The A-C 300 series of high-density oxidized PE includes an old product, A-C 316, and newer A-C 307 with lower acid value
and higher viscosity.
The samples were subjected to storage tests, including determination of total polyphenols by the Follin-Ciocalteu method , 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical binding power , antioxidant activity by the [ABTS.sup.*+] method , the ferric reducing antioxidant power of the extracts (FRAP) , and determination of acid value
(AV) and peroxide value (PV).
The report covers exhaustive analysis on: Glyoxylic acid Market Segments Glyoxylic acid Market Dynamics Glyoxylic acid Market Size Glyoxylic acid Supply & Demand Glyoxylic acid Current Trends/Issues/Challenges Glyoxylic acid Competition & Companies involved Glyoxylic acid Value
Chain Regional analysis includes: North America (U.S., Canada) Latin America (Mexico, Brazil) Western Europe (Germany, Italy, France, U.K, Spain) Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia) Asia Pacific (China, India, ASEAN, Australia & New Zealand) Japan Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries, S.
The physicochemical properties such as specific gravity, refractive index, free fatty acids, acid value
, iodine value, peroxide value, and saponification number of Jatropha oil were made following standard methods of AOCS (AOCS, 1997).
The oil had 0.387+-0.043, 2.907+-0.197, 118.8+-2.997 and 188.83+-1.678 acid value
, peroxide value, iodine value and saponification value, respectively.
Physico-chemical Characterization of the Extracted oils was obtained by using standard methods, such as color, odor, pH, density, specific gravity, acid value
, Peroxide Value and Saponification value.
Finally, the acid value
of the oil produced was determined by using standard test methods.