In the present study, both acetoacetate
and [beta]-BHBA, metabolites of acetyl-CoA, were upregulated in the HS group.
The ketogenic leucine product, isovaleryl-CoA, is finally catabolized to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate
. Both valine and isoleucine are considered glucogenic, being metabolized to propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, respectively.
In mitochondrion, the acetoacetate
is converted to [beta]-hydroxybutyrate under the influence of D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase which is dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD).
Initially, we focused on the optimization of the reaction conditions for the cyclocondensation reaction of ethyl acetoacetate
(1a), vanillin (2h), and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3) as starting substrates, as all of these are commercially available.
Early results clearly showed that the MCI brains took up just as much acetoacetate
as did the brains of cognitively normal young adults.
Acetest and Ketostix (Ames Co.) are semiquantitative tests that are widely used to measure acetoacetate
functional oligomer, 510-400, was also included in this study.
The bromide 6 (29.5 g, 155mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of methyl acetoacetate
(34.8 g, 300 mmol) and [K.sub.2]C[O.sub.3] (60.0 g, 435mmol) in acetone (150 mL) and DMF (40 mL).
When fatty acids reach the liver they're converted into acetoacetate
, an excellent metabolic fuel that belongs to a family of chemicals called ketones.
Ethy 1-2-methyl acetoacetate
was concordantly predicted correctly in all laboratories.
Classes of compounds detected by the NMR method included amino acids (alanine, asparagine, arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamate, glutamine, homoserine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, sarcosine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, taurine, valine); alcohols (methanol and glycerol); ketones and fatty acid by-products (acetoacetate
, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, pyruvate, isobutyrate); sugar (glucose); other small molecule intermediates (o-phosphocholine, choline, n,n-dimethylglycine, citrate, creatine, lactate, methylhistidine, succinate, myo-inositol, dimethylamine, methylsuccinate, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate).
When ketogenesis is initiated, the acetoacetate
produced needs to be transformed into [beta]HB in the mitochondria.
Ketone bodies, including acetone and acetoacetate
, were produced by the liver from fatty acids and then converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the TCA cycle.
According to the previous results , these major bands were mainly assigned to ascorbic acid (1132 [cm.sup.-1], 1664 [cm.sup.-1]), L-serine (1220 [cm.sup.-1]), nucleic acid, tryptophane (1323 [cm.sup.-1]), acetoacetate
(1445 [cm.sup.-1]), L-phenylalanine (1584 [cm.sup.-1]), and citric acid (1695 [cm.sup.-1]) as well.