International students also encounter similar acculturative
stressors such as language barriers, sociocultural stressors (e.g., establishing a new social network), discrimination and practical stressors (e.g., financial stress; Smith and Khawaja 2011).
Adherence to feminine norms may be particularly salient for Asian-American women who have to contend with the demands of acculturative
factors as well as of the culture of origin, which generally emphasizes conforming to traditional notions of femininity.
International students' reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative
Prior studies have documented an association between higher acculturative
stress and a poor health status (e.g., anxiety, depression, feelings of marginalization and alienation, increases in psychosomatic symptoms, identity confusion).
While certain variables are specific to immigrant and refugee families, such as immigration status, pre-migration trauma and family disruptions due to acculturative
stress, other risks factors are not unique to these populations.
stress has been conceptualized as the stress experienced by individuals during the acculturation process, generally arising from difficulties during intercultural exchanges (Berry, 2006; Berry et al., 1987).
A cross-national assessment of acculturative
stress in recent European mergers.
It can be said that these juvenile offenders were in the midst of a systematic crisis as a result of their migration experience, a crisis characterized by ineffective parental supervision, academic failure, school drop-out, and experiences of xenophobia and racism-all akin to the acculturative
stress apparently affecting Latin American immigrants in the United States, as described by Barrett et al.
Furthermore, the sample consisted of 77 individuals (88%) who endorsed the traditional acculturative
coping strategy more highly than the assimilationist coping strategy (12%).
Asian international music therapy students like me who study in a Western country experience a high level of acculturative
stress because music therapy as an interdisciplinary profession integrates the components of art, music, and science into human healthcare and each domain has its own inherent culture (Bruscia, 1998; Davis, Gfeller & Thaut, 2008; Kim, 2011).
Jibeen and Khalid's (2009) multidimensional acculturative
stress scale was adapted to the Singaporean context, and the subscales measuring discrimination, homesickness, language barriers, and lack of opportunities for occupational and financial mobility were included in the survey.
In this section, three specific categories of immigration stress are reviewed: (a) migration stress; (b) acculturative
stress; and (c) traumatic stress (Birman, 2002).
Psychologists of acculturative
stress have found that it's actually healthier, mentally, to have one foot in each, to have balance.
Bhattacharya (2008) used qualitative methods to explore how the availability of social capital influenced acculturative
stress on 17 Indian males; social capital being the social relationships with peers, in the workplace and within their ethnic community.
stressors are believed to be key factors that