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Large acaulescent Palms include 28 species in two genera (Table 6) and are commonly found in the Amazon basin.
In Small acaulescent Palms the stem is apparently absent and subterranean or too short to be conspicuous and the leaves are less than 2 m long.
The highly specialized stilt-root palm Socratea exorrhiza lacks an acaulescent establishment phase and is able to elevate itself in shade at the young stage with minimal investment in trunk building, progressively consolidating its architecture with increasing energy availability while reaching higher understory strata (Hogan, 1986).
Mortality is high before the acaulescent juvenile stage, which is in general highly resilient.
Low or acaulescent palms offer the best conditions for management, as their harvest does not require great effort or special tools, and thus, damage to palms is minimized, requiring only regulation of harvest volumes and times for guaranteeing sustainability.
Appendix 1 Table 2 Synopsis of Palm Management in South America, Countries: BO, Bolivia; BR, Brazil; CH, Chile; CO, Colombia; EC, Ecuador; GU, Guyana; PE, Peru; SU, Suriname; UR, Uruguay; VE, Venezuela, Human Groups: AF, Afro-descendants; AM, Amerindians; ME, Mestizos or Caboclos, Harvest Techniques: CN, Climbing Neighboring Tree; CP, Climbing the Palm; CT, Cutting Tool at the End of a Pole; DH, Direct Harvest of Low or Acaulescent Palms; FM, Felling as a Consequence of Mismanagement; FR, Felling Required; GH, Harvest from the Ground; ND, No Data (but No Felling); SC, Shoot Cutting in Cespitose Palms.
Herbs perennial or subshrubs, caulescent or acaulescent, base of the stem with a tuft of rust-colored woolly hairs.
Herbs annual or perennial, caulescent to acaulescent and scapose, woolly to silky.
Stems acaulescent, flask shaped, wholly subterranean, ca.
group of acaulescent taxa that have megasporophylls lacking a clearly
disodon looks like an acaulescent to short-trunked Z.
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