Large acaulescent Palms include 28 species in two genera (Table 6) and are commonly found in the Amazon basin.
In Small acaulescent Palms the stem is apparently absent and subterranean or too short to be conspicuous and the leaves are less than 2 m long.
Habit and Ecology--Species of Astrocaryum produce solitary or caespitose palms in the following classes (quantitative categories are given in Table 2): (i) large palms with tall stem, (ii) palms with large leaves and medium-sized stem, or short stem, or subterranean stem (considered "acaulescent"), (iii) slender to medium-sized palms, (iv) small, acaulescent palms with short leaves.
Description of the genus--Solitary or caespitose, acaulescent or stemmed, spiny, pleonanthic, monoecious palms.
The highly specialized stilt-root palm Socratea exorrhiza lacks an acaulescent establishment phase and is able to elevate itself in shade at the young stage with minimal investment in trunk building, progressively consolidating its architecture with increasing energy availability while reaching higher understory strata (Hogan, 1986).
Mortality is high before the acaulescent juvenile stage, which is in general highly resilient.
For example, around Iquitos in Peru, there are three acaulescent species with pinnae regularly arranged and spreading in one plane, which key out as Attalea racemosa, Attalea microcarpa and Attalea butyracea in Henderson's Palms of the Amazon (1995), and as Attalea ferruginea, Orbignya polysticha and Scheelea plowmanii, respectively, in Glassman's (1999) monograph.
Henderson (1995) considered also the acaulescent A.
Plant epiphytic, flowering 2.2-3.2 m tall, acaulescent
. Leaves forming a broad tank rosette, the rosette about 0.4-0.8 m high and 1.2 to 1.6 m in diameter; sheaths large, light brown below, 13-16 cm long; blades firm, triangular-ligulate, light green to yellowish green, 42-75 cm long, 7.0 a 9.5 cm wide in the lower half, the surface longitudinally sulcate, with conspicuous parallel veins, the apex often reddish, shortly acuminate or attenuate, slightly pungent.
In this species, spear leaves were cut from large, acaulescent
juveniles without causing any immediate damage, but since the number of leaves harvested per year was the same as the number of leaves produced, palms eventually died, as a consequence of the lack of leaf replacement.
10d, e) includes seven species of acaulescent
to climbing perennial herbs in South America.
Herbs perennial, acaulescent
, scapose, with plant dimorphism: a vernal (spring) stage with reduced or no leaves and chasmogamous capitula, and an autumnal (summer and fall) stage with fully developed leaves and cleistogamous capitula.
Herbs perennial, caulescent to acaulescent
any apiculus distinguish Cycas collina within a group of acaulescent
disodon looks like an acaulescent
to short-trunked Z.