The first measure of drinking intensity is set equal to zero if the student did not drink during this period (abstainer
), one if the respondent is a male (female) who typically drank less than five (four) drinks (moderate drinker), and two if they usually drank five (four) or more drinks (heavy drinker).
Males are more likely than females to appear in these clusters rather than in the abstainer
cluster (Table 6).
For example, Armstrong, Midanik, and Klatsky (1998) found in a survey of health maintenance organization (HMO) users that the heaviest drinkers (as measured by weekly consumption), after adjusting for age and race, had fewer hospital days, fewer hospitalizations, and fewer outpatient visits than abstainers
. Rice et al.
Researchers found personality differences between those individuals considered abstainers
and all others (users) for alcohol and other substances (Mayer, 1988; Masse & Tremblay, 1997; Jackson, 1997).
's Drinkers' Means Means (N-277) (N=198) 1.
Our findings indicate that 19-to-21-year-old male participants who used alcohol or marijuana at younger ages engaged in riskier sexual behavior than female participants and their male experimenter and abstainer
counterparts on measures of riskier sexual behavior.
It is assumed that potential electors can acquire abstainer
behavior (and become the boycotts of the elections) via effective contacts with abstainers
of the elections at a rate [beta].
Meanwhile, in the second round, 47 out of 51 MPs voted in favor of the new sports law, against three others who opposed it and one abstainer
. The Kuwaiti parliament convened for a "special session" earlier on Sunday, in which a new law encompassing all sports bodies and unions was drafted.
Surprisingly, genes also have much to do with creating an abstainer
. Lack of control --which should resemble alcoholism--is no single gene, but a group of traits.
Only two significant associations emerged: The highest-risk subgroup of drinkers were at 1.83-fold increased risk of extremely poor VACS trajectory, and the abstainers
were at 1.9-fold increased risk for both the most favorable VACS trajectory and an extremely-high-mortality VACS trajectory, reflecting the split in prognosis between the healthy abstainer
and sick quitter subgroups.
She seeks help from the school loner, Jesse, an Abstainer
(someone who rejects technology), while a mysterious hacker leads her deeper into the Improvement conspiracy.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate if the interpretation of these messages differed by gender and drinking status (abstainer
, social drinker, and high-risk drinker).
HU Hungary SP Spain CR Costa Rica BR Brazil UY Uruguay AR Argentina NG Nigeria UG Uganda IN India LK Sri Lanka JP Japan USA TABLE 2 Percentage of abstainers
by gender and country Gender: Men Women Drinking status: abstainer
drinker Total N abstainer
drinker Total N Country (100%) (100%) Finland 7.8 92.2 945 9.8 90.2 986 Sweden 11.5 88.5 2656 20.9 79.1 2816 Denmark 3.6 96.4 897 7.8 92.2 1133 UK 10.4 89.6 963 18.1 81.9 1038 Germany 4.5 95.5 3676 5.9 94.1 4443 Czech Rep.
Not bothered/not interested 17.2 (33.6) Deliberate decision 9.9 (19.3) Vote would not affect who won 7.3 (14.3) Undecided which to vote for 6.8 (13.3) Never vote 3.1 (6.1) Religious reasons 2.7 (5.3) Other reasons 4.2 (8.2) Involuntary abstainers
Away on election day 21.6 (35.6) Sickness prevented me 16.6 (27.4) Other commitments/no time 8.4 (13.9) Work prevented me 7.4 (12.2) Poll card/polling station problem 3.9 (6.4) Had moved 2.7 (4.5) Number Percentage Voted 2457 86 Voluntary abstainer
114 4 Involuntary abstainer
154 5 Abstained, voluntary and involuntary 19 1 Abstained, no reason given 112 4
Consequently, the present study extends the line of social norm research by making the peer reference group both gender specific and more distal by asking male adolescents to consider the drinking habits of "most other people your age and sex." Our third objective was to examine the impact of abstainers
on perceived peer drinking behaviors.