fell into two distinct groups: sick quitters with worsening HIV disease and healthy abstainers
Regarding variables assessed pre-treatment (ND, NWS and craving) significant differences were found at the end of the treatment for only ND; abstainers
had lower ND than participants who continued smoking (M = 4.
Furthermore, social norm messages may result in iatrogenic (negative unintended outcomes) affects particularly among abstainers
, thus the impact of the intervention may vary by drinking status (Campo, 2006).
HU Hungary SP Spain CR Costa Rica BR Brazil UY Uruguay AR Argentina NG Nigeria UG Uganda IN India LK Sri Lanka JP Japan USA TABLE 2 Percentage of abstainers
by gender and country Gender: Men Women Drinking status: abstainer
drinker Total N abstainer
drinker Total N Country (100%) (100%) Finland 7.
was Tim Ben Boydston, the council's newest member and the one least likely to go along with the status quo.
This information is used to construct the following variables, which are controlled for in the empirical analysis: the age of the respondent (in years), age squared, an indicator for gender (male), race (African American, Asian, Native American, with White as the comparison category), ethnicity (Hispanic, with non-Hispanic as the comparison category), the religion that the respondent grew up in (Catholic, Jewish, Moslem, Protestant, other religion, with no religion as the comparison category), parents' education (at least one parent completed college), and indicators of each parent's drinking behavior while the respondent was growing up (parent not present, former drinker, infrequent drinker, moderate drinker, heavy drinker, problem drinker with abstainer
as the comparison category).
Compared with white males, black males are almost eight times as likely to be in the multiple partner cluster rather than in the abstainer
Thus, because our abstainer
group includes both groups, the negative relationship between alcohol consumption and health care utilization may be driven by higher utilization of former drinkers.
Each student was classified either as an abstainer
, a non-binge drinker, an occasional binge drinker or a frequent binge drinker.
Subjects who reported no illegal substance use ever or no alcohol use ever were included in the abstainer
, NCS Treasurer Chip Beck, was voted off the board Sept.
Hudson News, which can be found in New York area airports, greets customers with a sign boasting that it's a "drug-free workplace," but is the newspaper you buy there any more interesting if the cashier is an abstainer
rather than a stoner?
Before testing the hypotheses, we first examined the relationship between Blacks' education, income, and being an Abstainer
Our findings indicate that 19-to-21-year-old male participants who used alcohol or marijuana at younger ages engaged in riskier sexual behavior than female participants and their male experimenter and abstainer
counterparts on measures of riskier sexual behavior.
5) Number Percentage Voted 2457 86 Voluntary abstainer
114 4 Involuntary abstainer
154 5 Abstained, voluntary and involuntary 19 1 Abstained, no reason given 112 4