Last, it is a simple matter to relax the assumption that emissivity = absorptivity
The formation constant and the molar absorptivity
(e) of the resulting 1:1 (metal ion to ligand) complexes between the pyrazoloisoindol derivative ligand and different cations at 25[degrees]C were calculated by fitting the observed absorbance, [A.sub.obs,] at various metal ion/ligand mole ratios to the previously derived equations [27, 28] which express the [A.sub.obs] as a function of the free and complexed metal ions and the formation constant evaluated from a non-linear least-squares program KINFIT .
Kirchhoff therefore recognized the importance of surface absorptivity
in the blackbody problem.
By modifying the material composition during processing and, hence, the absorptivity
, a changed energy input combined with locally differing temperature states might occur.
From the spectrum, we can see such an absorber nearly acts as a blackbody at [lambda] < 2 [micro]m, while its absorptivity
is decreased dramatically at longer wavelengths of [lambda] > 2 [micro]m.
a, [m.sup.-1]([ft.sup.-1]) = absorptivity
of the fluid medium per unit length
The functionality of the absorber (let it be an absorbing film) is defined by its absorptivity
, its spatial extent (preferably, smallest), and its broadband and omnidirectional operation.
In particular, as shown in Figure 1, the solar cell array with high solar absorptivity
may serve as the high-temperature heat source at noon and heat the envelope and inner lift gas of the airship .
can be calculated as A([omega]) = 1 - [[absolute value of [S.sub.11]([omega])].sup.2] - [[absolute value of [S.sub.21]([omega])].sup.2], where [S.sub.11]([omega]) and [S.sub.21]([omega]) are the absorption reflection and transmission, respectively.
Lunar landers are exposed to severe lunar thermal environments with a daily surface temperature difference of approximately 300[degrees]C owing to the absence of atmosphere to absorb heat energy and the high absorptivity
and emissivity values of lunar regolith .
where the absorptivity
of solar radiation by the glass cover is [[alpha].sub.c], while the energy gain is [[alpha].sub.c]I.
The isobutanol layer was dried over [Na.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] and used for the determination of the concentration of TC in the solution at 370 nm using 20,400 [M.sup.-1] x [cm.sup.-1] as the value of molar absorptivity
 or 654 as the value of A (1% 1 cm) at that wavelength.
The molar absorptivity
of the ion-pair complex was 2.285 x [10.sup.4]L/mol/cm which reveals the high sensitivity of the method.
Their relative abundance in space, for example, an abundance of about 0.35% in certain planetary nebulae, was estimated through the molar absorptivity
and integrated molar absorptivity
of the infrared maxima measured in laboratory [5, 6].
Using a recently developed saturation-level concept, we demonstrate that the signs of the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing are fundamentally dependent on vertical absorptivity
and temperature profiles and will thus vary with wave number as well as seasonally.