Both can be used for the electrical substitution equivalence measurement and their separate positions allow checking the effectiveness of the heating system for equivalence of optical and electrical power absorptance
by the cavity.
The AIT glass sheets are used as a superstrate for a-Si:H p-i-n precursor solar cell structures designed to investigate the optical absorptance
For the diffuse radiation transmitted through the windows and direct reflected solar gains, three methods are considered: area ratio, absorptance
weighted area ratio, and radiosity.
Decreased reflectance is due to greater absorptance
of light energy due to the chlorophyll maxima at this point; this increased absorptance
is then utilized in turf physiological processes, and is manifested as higher turf quality.
The strong relationship between chlorophyll content and spectral properties of maize leaves (Ercoli et al., 1993) suggests that it may be possible to estimate absorptance
of the incident PPFD by maize leaves from a measure of leaf chlorophyll.
Figure 5 illustrates the absorptance
(A) and EQE of a-[Si.sub.1-x][Ge.sub.x]:H cells with different i/n grading width.
The effect of the window frame was taken into account and the following values were used for other parameters: total solar radiation transmittance of the window = 0.1; total solar radiation absorption of the glass = 0.38; and total solar radiation absorptance
of the blinds = 0.26 (based on illuminance measurements, solar radiation transmittance of the blinds = 0.1, and solar reflectance = 0.45).
Figure 3(c) shows the absorptance
versus the photon energy (hv) of the CZTS thin films with different sulfurization temperatures.
These CTM losses occur generally for one of two reasons: (1) optical losses that are caused by the module encapsulation processes, for example, increased reflectance loss, and parasitic absorptance
losses in the cover glass and front encapsulant layer [1,2] and (2) resistive losses due to the ribbons and the configuration of the silicon wafer solar cells inside the module.
* Four transmittance values for roller shades: 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% (shade absorptance
The solar absorptance
coefficients have been set to 0.6 for the floor (internal side) and 0.3 for the vertical walls and the roof (both sides).
The angle-dependent glazing properties (transmittance, reflectance, and absorptance
) are obtained from WINDOW6 and matched with experimental measurements.
The window properties (beam and diffuse transmittance and absorptance
) were obtained from WINDOW 6 (LBNL, 2011).
Glazing properties used in the simulation Property Glazing 1 Glazing 2 Glazing 3 Inner Pane Clear Low-el Low-e2 Coated (IP) Uncoated Coated Glass Glass Glass U-value 3.55 1.92 1.74 W/[m.sup.2] W/[m.sup.2] W/[m.sup.2]K K K (0.625 Btu / (0.338 Btu / (0.306 Btu / [ft..sup.2] [ft..sup.2] [ft..sup.2] hr [degrees] hr [degrees] hr [degrees] F) F) F) Solar 61% 61% 47% Transmittance (Assembly) Absorptance
5% 17% 14% (IP) Visual 81% 78% 77% Transmittance
The effective solar absorptance
of the panel (including the area between cells) is increased by selecting black PV module backsheet.