Caption: Figure 6: A mapping structure in absolute space
Geographic information has largely been defined and implemented in a manner that constitutes independent entities with intensive properties, contextually indexed by location in an absolute space
, and known objectively through a geographic gaze.
For instance, it sets up a series of relationships between the absolute space
of specific locations (nations, cities, villages), the relative spaces enabled by air travel and globalized circulation of media products and businesses, and the relational spaces in which processes of power and representation across time form relations between groups and individuals.
Inspired by Mach's relationalist view, Einstein (1936, 1949) thought that gravity might have a role in how spatial objects influence the water, and that Newton had "mistaken the gravitational field for an absolute space
" (Rovelli, 2004, p.
Since the time of Aristotle two fundamental ideas had gone unchallenged: the notions of absolute space
and absolute time.
Proposing a double narrative to express how reality is mediated by the imagination, Plumi questions the existence of absolute space
without an actor to animate it.
Starting with Newton's "absolute space
" as reference for acceleration, many physicists were quick to doubt anything that can act (cause an inertial force) but cannot be acted upon.
There is nothing in Newtonian physics that requires absolute space
, yet scientists could not give up the idea of a fixed rigid universe until Einstein and others got rid of it.
The other strand (re)articulates citizenship in terms of ambiguous paradoxical subjectivity that challenges the modern framing of the politics of citizenship as necessarily needing to be conceptualized in terms of absolute space
. This divergence is explored through the 2004 Irish Citizenship Referendum.
This open area can be regarded as absolute space
and as Henry Lefebvre states, "Absolute space
was made up of fragments of nature located at sites which were chosen for their intrinsic qualities but whose very consecration ended up by stripping them of their natural characteristics and uniqueness" (48).
of duration by means of motion," (22) and relative space is defined as "any movable measure of dimension" of absolute space
. (23) Place is defined as "the part of space that a body occupies," and motion is effectively "the change of position of a body from one relative place to another." (24) Consequently, "the place of a whole is the same as the sum of the places of the parts and therefore is internal and in the whole body." (25) In other words, relative place and motion are subject to change, yet "the order of the parts of time" and "the order of the parts of space" are unchangeable.
--an Absolute Space
Feature (ASF) if it only consists in a named entity allowing geo-localization, or
For example, in discussing Leibniz's PSR-based attack on Newtonian absolute space
and time Pruss claims that 'the argument is not likely to be used for showing space and time to be relative' but is 'more likely to act as an attempt at a reductio ad absurdum of the PSR' (29).
The difference between space and place informs the epistemological investigation since time immemorial and may be presented, to various and variable degrees, as a dichotomy between those philosophers who tend to privilege the concept of a more restricted, confining and containing relative place (most notably Aristotle with his theories on place as a vessel which surrounds beings within the finite space of the universe) and those who, on the contrary, tend to focus on the more generalized concept of absolute space
, being it finite or infinite, in which human beings are situated since their appearance on earth and which is a pre-existing entity second to void alone (from which, in fact, matter has arisen).