(1) Various conditions, both obstetric and non-obstetric, can cause RCN; among the former are septic abortion, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, abruptio placentae
and prolonged intrauterine fetal death; among the latter are snakebite, renal allograft rejection, uraemic-haemolytic syndrome, enterocolitis, pancreatitis, sepsis, etc.
Eclampsia was seen in 6% and abruptio placentae
in 6.8%, as in Nankali et al (2013).
A case of OH was established if a record indicated a diagnosis of antepartum haemorrhage (APH) (unspecified), abruptio placentae
, ruptured uterus, or retained placenta, bleeding after trauma to the lower genital tract, symptomatic placenta praevia, and PPH.
Three of the intrauterine deaths were caused by abruptio placentae
. One occurred in group 1 and 2 in group 2, 1 of the latter within 7 days of the Doppler test.
Maternal toxicities include spontaneous abortions, premature labor and delivery, premature rupture of membranes, placenta previa, and abruptio placentae
. Fetal and neonatal toxicities can result from maternal use at any point during gestation and include growth retardation, fetal distress, in utero cerebrovascular accidents, and abnormal neonatal neurobehavior.
The well-documented effects of maternal smoking include decreased birth weight, increased rates of spontaneous abortions, abruptio placentae
(sudden separation of the placenta from the uterine lining), placentia previa (a placenta that blocks the opening to the cervix), and premature deliveries.
Of the women, 7 (39%) had had previous caesarean sections, of whom 1 (6%) presented with abruptio placentae
and 1 (6%) uterine rupture.
APH complicates about 2-5% of all the pregnancies,  APH can be due to placenta praevia, abruptio placentae
, indeterminate cause or local causes of tract.
Obstetric haemorrhage related to abruptio placentae
was an important cause of morbidity.
and its complications in Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad.
38% in the normal-weight group--were not significantly different between groups, nor were the percentages who developed severe hypertension, HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome, abruptio placentae
, or eclampsia, Dr.
Several years ago, for example, we reported on a case of abruptio placentae
associated with increases in blood pressure in a pregnant woman with untreated panic attacks.
 More importantly, if one suspects intra-abdominal bleeding in pregnancy associated with severe PE, HELLP or abruptio placentae
, a team management approach involving obstetricians, surgeons (experienced in liver surgery), intensive care unit specialists and probably an interventionist radiologist must be strongly considered.
(AP) refers to bleeding at the decidualplacental interface, which causes placental detachment over 28 weeks of gestation and prior to delivery of foetus.