In Old English, this definition comprises four subtypes: (i) zero derivation with inflectional morphemes and without derivational morphemes, as in ridan "to ride" > ridda "rider"; (ii) zero derivation without explicit morphemes, either inflectional or derivational, as in bidan "to delay" > bid "delay"; (iii) zero derivation with or without explicit inflection but displaying ablaut
, such as, respectively, cnawan "to know" > cneowian "to know carnally" and drifan "to drive" > draf "action of driving"; and (iv) zero derivation with formatives that cannot be considered derivational affixes in synchronic analysis, such as -m in fleon "to fly" > fleam "flight."
That is, those nouns that are either zero-related to the verb or created from a verb by means of the morphological process known as ablaut
One may think that forms (1.2a, 1.2b) belong to ablaut
The seven classes of Old English strong verbs Infinitive Preterite Preterite Past singular plural Participle I drifan 'to drive' draf drifon drifen II cleofan 'to cleave' cleaf clufon clofen III drincan 'to drink' dranc druncon drunken IV beran 'to bear' basr bxron boren V giefan 'to give' geaf geafon giefen VI standan 'to stand' stod stodon standen VII slsBpan 'to sleep' slep slepon slsBpen The vocalic contrasts displayed by figure 1 have been largely discussed in the literature as ablaut
(or apophony) and the different vocalic value are usually referred to as ablaut
As regards the historical phonology of the Ob-Ugric forms, the vowel correspondence is regular: the regular reflexes of PU *a(- a) are PKh *a and PMs *u, and the attested PKh *i is the high ablaut
grade of *a (Helimski 2001; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 : 42), implying that there has been a lost suffix in the stem that triggered the ablaut
This mechanism can be combined with vowel deletion (Tsez Yudi 'day', GEN1 Yud-e-s), ablaut
(Hinuq buq 'sun') and various oblique markers (Khwarshi is 'sibling').
I will now show, that as for the analysis of Tibetan words eleven morphological and morpho-phonological categories are available, namely prefixation (1), suffixation (2), infixation (3), vowel variation or ablaut
(4), variation in place of articulation (5), variation in manner of articulation (6), assimilation (7), dissimilation (8), metathesis (9), elision (10), contraction (11).
Spoken German with its abundant use of Umlaut and Ablaut
is a case in point (cf.
of course serves the same differentiating purpose.
(48) During the period 1997-2005, for example, forecasting error for GDP growth averaged ablaut
0.5 percentage point for forecasts made in the same year, but 0.9 percent for forecasts made in previous years.
McGinn, Richard 1999 The Position of the Rejang Languages of Sumatra in Relation to Malay and the "Ablaut
" Languages of Northwest Borneo.
The Sinhala language is characterized by the melodic shifty stress or its essence, the opposition between long and short vowels, the Ablaut
variants of the vowels and the syllabic alphabet which, of course, might impact the vowel harmony and can be a feature of all the leveled Indo-European languages.
When teaching lifeguard personnel ablaut
positive pressure ventilation using a personal resuscitation mask, a personal resuscitation shield, or a bag-valve-mask resuscitator, suction equipment should absolutely be a part of the instruction.
Down below, the driver of a blast-hole drill is slowly working his way around the perimeter of this bench, boring a sixty-foot-deep hole ablaut
every ten feet.