That differences in spatial-rotation ability between the sexes might be innate is important because spatial rotation is a necessary skill for many of the elite, high-paying jobs in mathematics and the physical sciences.
The special significance of these results is that spatial ability is thought to be one of the most sex-linked areas of math" said Aronson.
However, McGlone's study puts a dent in the deterministic argument that gender differences in mathematical ability and other disciplines are due exclusively to biology, and indicates that by applying the results we can work towards reducing this gap, if not eliminating it.
Other studies have shown that girls may be receiving subtle nudges from society to pursue or avoid certain paths based on the perceived ability of girls in fields such as math and science.
The following integration of some of the theoretical concepts into an ability assessment and its interpretation are organized according to seven of Super's theoretical propositions (as given in the list that follows Figure 1; Super et al.
In Figure 1, the Ability Areas rating chart illustrates how people differ in their abilities and, because norms are used, how an individual also differs from others on the same ability.
The "Interpreting Your Ability Explorer Results" section in Figure 1 reports the occupations in which a person can use persuasive ability, the highest self-reported ability, in conjunction with the person's other abilities.
An important component of the Level 2 AE's counselor's report (not shown) is the Ability Configurations section, which gives minimum recommended percentile ranks for various career groups.
IQ tests and g may to some extent pick up on the ability
to co- opt biologically primary skills for the acquisition of secondary skills in school or elsewhere," Geary contends.
They acknowledge - and then go on to forget - that the relationship between education and ability is far from exact.
Their own evidence (buried in Appendix 6), as well as a vast literature in empirical social science, clearly indicates that controlling for ability lowers but does not eliminate the return to schooling measured in terms of earnings.
Accounting for ability weakens but hardly eliminates the role of education in raising earnings.
Best features: Ability to view results on screen, process multistate and consolidated returns and switch between government form and input view.
Improvements desired: Improved manuals, ability to reprint 1040 organizer, improved customization of transmittal letters, extension of tax review system to business products, quicker updates, increased speed, ability to view output on screen, increased sophistication of diagnostics.
Ability to archive version of 1992 software and user's 1992 data files on CD-ROM for permanent storage, offering direct access to software on the CD-ROM.