Restored top carnivores as detriments to the performance of marine protected areas intended for fishery sustainability: a case study with red abalones and sea otters.
Abalones, shells, and sea otters: dynamics of prey populations in central California.
An introduced sabellid polychaete pest infesting cultured abalones and its potential spread to other California gastropods.
Abalones and sea urchins in an area inhabited by sea otters.
Biochemical and genetic-engineering for improved production of abalones and other valuable mollusks.
Is climate change contributing to range reductions and localized extinctions in northern (Haliotis kamtschatkana) and flat (Haliotis walallensis) abalones? Bull.
Do sea urchins and abalones compete in California kelp forest communities?
The pinto abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana Jonas, 1845) is a prosobranch gastropod mollusc ranging from approximately Salisbury Sound (north of Sitka), Alaska, to Bahia Tortugas, Baja California, Mexico (Fig.
Keywords: Proximate; Natural food; Gracilaria lichenoides; Ulva fasciata; Abalone
Marine culture is concerning more to economics fish and oysters, while in Indonesia, one of the high economic commodity which can be developed is abalone (Haliotis spp.).
The global production of abalone reached 22.600 metric tones (including poaching of 3700 metric tones) in 2002.
The development of abalone culture has stimulated research into abalone digestive physiology, the application of animal feed science principles to abalone, abalone feeding behaviour, on-farm alga product performance of different alga as feed, and the optimal use of both natural and formulated diets under intesive culture condition (4-7).
Alga as abalone natural foods have been studied in some regions to find out the type of alga which influenced to abalone culture (6,7-14).
Types of natural food usually used in abalone culture are Eucheuma cottonii, Gracilaria arcuata, Gracilaria gigas, Gracilaria solicornia, Gracilaria racillariopsis heteroclada, and Gracilaria verrucosa.
While the materials used are catalyst ([K.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] and CuS[O.sub.4]), concentrated [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], [H.sub.3]B[O.sub.3], [Na.sub.2] (S[O.sub.4][).sub.3] (alkali), HCl, filter paper (lipid free), chloroform, aquadest, Gracilaria lichenoides, Ulva fasciata, and Abalone Haliotis squamata.