Variables used to calculate the propensity match score included age, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), cirrhosis, a-fetoprotein
, total bilirubin, partial thromboplastin time, alkaline phosphatase, a-glutamyltransferase, differentiation, tumor size, vascular invasion, encapsulation, and tumor number.
This was significantly reinforced with discovery of a-fetoprotein
(AFP) in amniotic fluid in 1972 and subsequently in the maternal blood in 1973 (13,24) with the significant association of elevated AFP with neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida).
Tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 12-5 were within normal limits, except a-fetoprotein
( greater than 1200ng/ml; normal 0-8ng/ml), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (64.
Plasma analyses for albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and a-fetoprotein
were performed by the Chemical Pathology laboratory of the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, with a DPE Modular Analytics system (Roche Diagnostics).
In April 2000, he had been admitted to urology clinic because of painless left testicular mass and diagnosed as having metastatic testicular embryonal carcinoma with normal beta human chorionic gonadotropin KG) levels and markedly elevated levels of a-fetoprotein
(9204 IU/mL, normal: 0.
beta]-human chorionic gonadotropin and a-fetoprotein
levels were normal.
Diagnosis is based on morphologic resemblance to hepatocellular carcinoma and positive immunostaining for a-fetoprotein
was more than 2,000 ng/mL in nearly half of the hepatitis B patients and in 5 of 35 hepatitis C patients.
Shifting to flow cytometry, our group developed an assay for a-fetoprotein
in which the interference testing was performed simultaneously for all samples (11).