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Related to Xenoliths: Phreatomagmatic, Phenocrysts, Plutons
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  • noun

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(geology) a piece of rock of different origin from the igneous rock in which it is embedded

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Citing recent evidence from deep crust-mantle sections exhumed in orogenic belts as well as crustal and mantle xenoliths brought to the surface by volcanic activity, geologists investigate the boundary between the lower crust of Earth and the underlying mantle.
The mafic dykes contain xenoliths of the granite some of which have been weathered out to leave behind rounded potholes and cavities.
Diamond-bearing eclogite xenoliths * Cat's-eye calcite from Pakistan * Large chatoyant Brazilian emerald * Nonbeadcultured pearls from Strombus gigas * Purple scapolite * Synthetic star sapphire with diffusion-induced colour and star * Partially filled blue chalcedony * Presumably oiled ruby * Inclusions in synthetic star sapphire * Diamond slices * Large Namibian demantoid * Nephrite from British Columbia * Baroque cultured pearls * Ruby from Namya, Myanmar * Rock Creek sapphire update * Unusual tourmaline necklace * Conference reports.
However, comparisons between Ti-clinohumite from the Cienaga Marbles and that found in JAC carbonatites, xenoliths in kimberlites, RGP Alpine peridotites and Archean ultramafics may carry out as shown in Figure 11, highlighting that the Ti-clinohumite analyzed in this study represents not only an almost pure in Mg but also may be considered as the most Mg-rich and TiO2-rich varieties around the world for skarn environments.
Xenoliths (hydrothermally altered lavas) are sparseor locally concentrated in discrete horizons.
The likely presence of meta-dolerite xenoliths in Sydney region diatremes is also extremely low, as is the possibility of such material being in the older known palaeochannel remnants such as at Newington and Newtown.
Instead of melting and being transported to the surface as a melt, the diamonds are carried to the surface in large pieces of mantle rock known as xenoliths.
Recognizable in the tunnel walls were xenoliths of black tourmaline, as are typical of pegmatites.
Hornblende is found in some of the summit samples, as are small gabbroic, plagioclase-magnetite, and ultramafic xenoliths that may represent disaggregated cumulates (Herzer 1971).
Early core drilling strongly suggested that the EJF Inner of ON-K120 was prospective for diamonds due to the abundance of eclogite xenoliths and coarse kimberlite texture.
This study will produce detailed maps of small but representative areas including: (1) detailed topography to a small contour interval; (2) mapping of lithologic textures including megascopic mineralogy, xenoliths, flow foliations, and phenocryst morphology and distribution; (3) mapping of structures such as joints, fractures, and faults; and (4) surface weathering textures.
The outcrops at their Cristal occurrence are stripped of vegetation by exploration crews, and coated with xenoliths, rock fragments encased in volcanic breccias pushed upward from deep inside the mantle.