Review -- Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls
. Mar Drugs 2011.
Several studies published in 2017--one year before the findings just discussed--add support to the connection between xanthophylls
and brain function.
Subjects were not asked to modify their diets, and an assessment of their normal dietary intake of xanthophylls
was not included in this study.
(lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables and corn and egg products," Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol.
Different (https://scijinks.gov/leaves-color/) chemicals in the leaves are responsible for the different colors we see, xanthophylls
for example cause the yellows, while carotenoids cause the oranges and anthocyanins bring out the vivid reds.
All ethanol extracts showed the different intensity of brown colour ranging from deep brown to light brown indicating the presence of mono-terpenes and sesquiterpenes (essential oils), di-and triterpenoids (gums and resins), Tetraterpenoids (carotenoids, xanthophylls
and carotenoic acids) and polyterpenoid is the rubber (Sameeno, 2007; and Raaman, 2006).
In addition to Beta carotene, the major xanthophylls
pigment found in all Nannochloropsis species are vilaxanthin and a vaucherxanthin-like pigment (Karlson et al., 1996; Sukenik, 1999).
Among carotenoids of the xanthophylls
group, lutein and zeaxanthin (non-provitamin A compounds) are the main substances (VALDUGA et al., 2009).
Effect of micronutrients on flower yield and xanthophylls
content of African marigold (Tagetus erecta L.) M.
Under drought stress, ABA protects plant photosynthesis by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Li et al., 2010) and xanthophylls
cycle (Jia and Lu, 2003).
Evaluation of xanthophylls
from Targetes erectus (Marigold Flower) and Capsicum Sp.
Carotenoids are divided into two classes according to their chemical structure: the carotenes (hydrocarbons, such as [beta]-carotene and lycopene) and the xanthophylls
(polar compounds including oxygen atoms in their structure, such as lutein and its structural isomer zeaxanthin) .
The two types of carotenoids are xanthophylls
(oxygen containing) and carotenes (hydrocarbons only).
differ in their antioxidant activity, and complement each other especially in the macula."