The following estrildid finches were included as outgroups for rooting the phylogenetic tree: (1) cut-throat finch, Amadina fasciata, a species that in another molecular genetics study (Kakizawa and Watada 1985) was determined to represent the basal split of the set of African estrildid finches that includes all host species of the viduas; (2) orange-winged pytilia, Pytilia afra, a host of the paradise whydahs; (3) redbilled firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, a host of the indigobirds; and (4) green twinspot, Mandingoa nitidula, which is not known to be a host.
Heuristic (50 replicates) and exhaustive searches were also done for the paradise whydahs using V.
The indigobirds and the paradise whydahs also each comprise a monophyletic group within the Vidua assemblage.
The branching diagrams of the pytilias and of the paradise whydahs are not congruent (Fig.
Within the paradise whydahs the mean was 42% of that between the pytilias.
A hypothesis of recently diverged indigobird species is also supported by their low between-species genetic variation when compared with the paradise whydahs, the estrildids included in this study, and other songbirds (Edwards and Wilson 1990; Johnson and Cicero 1991; E.
Vocal mimicry of the paradise whydahs (Vidua) and response of female whydahs to the songs of their hosts (Pytilia) and their mimics.
Female and first-year male plumages of paradise whydahs Vidua interjecta.