There is excellent evidence that Walapai Charlie, Cherum's half brother, learned to speak English prior to the Walapai War.
During the prewar period Walapai Charlie perforce picked up whatever English he acquired at Fort Mojave or Hardyville in hostile Mojave territory.
Walapai Charlie's imprisonment by the army convinced him of the power of enlightenment, in his case the absolute necessity of all Walapai children learning to speak the English language fluently?
Dobyns and Euler, Walapai People, and Dobyns and Euler, Havasupai People, 10.
One of the principal fighting Chiefs has been sent in Irons to Angel Island for confinement and as hostage for the good conduct of the tribe" (Price, Camp Mojave, 30 May 30 1869, in Walapai Papers, 90).
Levi Levi didn't; Walapai Charley didn't" (Bill McGee via Tim McGee [wife], 2 December 1952, 25).
Dobyns and Euler, WYP, 13 ("about 25" [Senate, Walapai Papers 44), "about twenty" (79-80) 22 (82), 59 (thirty-eight in agave processing camp at Kesthil Kwit Kwita below Cross Mountain [Walapai Papers 48, 63, 83, and notes]; but 130 to 140 according to McGee (19 October 1953, 11); a 40-nuclear family blackberry harvest camp at Maketaoide' or Round Valley [Kroeber, Walapai Ethnography, 180].
Kroeber, Walapai Ethnography 23,15-16, emphasis added.
Martin, "The Prehistory and Ethnohistory," 146, 148; Senate, Walapai Papers, 142; Euler, Walapai Culture History; Garces, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, 345.
Two of the three subtribal chiefs perished during the Walapai War.
Chief Walapai Charley (Cherum's half brother, four years younger) and Cherum surrendered as a condition of peace.
However Cherum felt about the outcome of the brief but grim Walapai War, he adjusted to the circumstances of conquest and helped the Pals to survive as a conquered ethnic group subordinated by the conquering Haikoo.
Leve Leve's role during the Walapai War attests his hereditary chief-tainship pre-dated Byrne's arrival on the Pai scene.
1935 Walapai Ethnography, by Fred Kniffen, Gordon MacGregor, Robert McKennan, Scudder McKeel, and Maurice Mook.
Senate 1936 The Walapai Papers: Historical Reports, Documents and Extracts from Publications Relating to the Walapai Indians of Arizona.