Worth only fifteen shillings, Escelie had just three villeins
and two bordars as well as two oxmen.
Nor could the villeins
(as they were called) leave the manor on which they were born.
A Declaration and Appeal (1645) invoked Magna Charta to condemn imprisonment for debt, "being a freeborn people and no villeins
and slaves" an English freeman could not be "outlawed" without "lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.
But in the medieval world, there were degrees of freedom, predicated on degrees of land ownership, and your social identity reflected that, ranging from serfs to villeins
to sokemen to freemen to thegns.
The local villeins
wouldn't get out of bed for less than two groats an hour.
The first documents to be examined are the jara'id, the registers of the Muslim serfs, or villeins
, people with Arabic names, who were transferred through royal privileges to the church and lords together with the land they cultivated.
The uprising of the peasants, of the masses, of the urban throng, the participation of the mesteirais in Lisbon, the assault of the villeins
on the noblemen in their castles, the demand of the masses for the abolition of unpopular taxes, all those aspects minutely detailed by Fernao Lopes in his chronicles--Oliveira Martins's main source--disappeared completely from his account of the crisis in Historia de Portugal.
The absolute powerless nature of the Jewish position may be summarized: "There was no custom, no tradition to which they could refer, as could the villeins
or tenants, in the care of an autocratic master.
If you will pardon the sleight sir, you reign over us like a cruel sheik, while we are mere villeins
to be inveigled and kept under constant surveillance.
When confronted over his promises made at Mile End on June 14, 1381, King Richard replied: "Villeins
ye are and villeins
ye shall remain.
That land was available to the villeins
to pasture the cow, to cut the wood, and to dig the turf.
These early Coventrians lived off the land, either as free men or as villeins
, serfs and bordars belonging to the lord.
9) When Venice acquired possession of the island, it also acquired the lands and the servile population known in Latin as villeins
35) Homosexuals, he writes, are a "geographically concentrated and politically powerful minority" with "high disposable income" who have successfully aligned themselves with an elite "lawyer class," the "knights rather than the villeins
," "Templars" who have betrayed the more "plebeian attitudes" of true citizens.