Patients with vertigo without vestibular lesion
, two-sided vestibular lesions
, diabetic patients, patients with cerebrovascular accidents, with prominent anemia, cranial surgery, and cardiac pacemakers were excluded from the study.
First, following the development of a unilateral peripheral vestibular lesion
, the level of spontaneous neural activity in the vestibular nucleus is reduced; after a period of compensation, this level can retum to normal.
Unidirectional nystagmus may infrequently be seen in central vestibular lesions
involving the brainstem; however, accompanying neurological signs make localisation fairly straightforward.
Several illnesses can cause persistent unsteadiness and dizziness, including bilateral peripheral vestibular deficits, central vestibular lesions
(strokes), propriocepfive or visual loss (neuropathies), and generalized anxiety disorder.
Modulation of memory by vestibular lesions
and galvanic vestibular stimulation.
Head-shaking nystagmus in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions