Singer is a thoroughgoing utilitarian
, whereas my sense is that most animal researchers are utilitarians
when it comes to animals, but rights theorists when it comes to humans.
On so doing, he says, the reader will be provided with the opportunities of examining some essentials of the debate on punishment, which as it turns out means the debate between the utilitarian
justification for punishment and that of the retributivist.
present a collection of 56 writings by the utilitarian
political and moral philosophers and their critics.
There may be utilitarian
reasons for specific social behaviors but not moral ones.
Kant and the utilitarians
were not trying to say what should be moral but to describe the underlying logic by which we justify our actions.
But if this is the basis of Audi's distinction, it is unclear why utilitarians
must be externalists.
If we look at their arguments, we see that utilitarians
look to the future, while the Natural Law looks to the present moment.
First, he attempts to bridge the gulf between those who argue for private property, individual rights, and freedom of contract from a "natural law" perspective and those who advance these ideas from a more utilitarian
It's what's wrong with much of modern economic thought, this utilitarian
rationalism--in Stigler's political economy as against Friedman's, or in Richard Posner's law and economy as against Ronald Coase's.
In other words, do utilitarians
endorse harming one to save many simply because they endorse harmful, selfish acts more generally?
tolerate self-benefiting actions only in that context.
Logsdon asserts, "drawing instruction was viewed as a means to an economic end, [so] the policy philosophically shares more with the 'greater good' thesis espoused by utilitarians
than with pragmatism's notion of an individual's considered inquiry into an array of potential life consequences.
Given this individual's demonstrated propensity to commit crime, utilitarians
consider this criminal a threat to society--that is to say, the criminal's demonstrated propensity to commit crimes indicates he is likely to commit future crimes and thus is bound to cause pain to others.
In the face of rampant philosophical diversity, utilitarians
too often miss the point and ask whether pluralism is good for utility when they ought to step back and consider that others would like to rule according to their dogma too.
, like John Stuart Mill or Jeremy Bentham, judge a moral action as that which causes the greatest amount of good for the most people.