For example, when people must choose whether to harm one person to save many, emotional processes typically support one type of non-utilitarian response, such don't harm the individual, while controlled processes support the utilitarian response, such as save the greatest number of lives.
In a series of experiments, utilitarian moral judgment was revealed to be specifically associated with reduced empathic concern, and not with any of the demographic or cultural variables tested, nor with other aspects of empathic responding, including personal distress and perspective taking.
In each experiment, those who reported lower levels of compassion and concern for other people - a key aspect of empathy - picked the utilitarian over the non-utilitarian response.
Because of the attempt to supplant so-called utilitarian justification with aesthetic education, the former term was looked upon with scorn, and in the field of arts education utilitanan is a term that has continued to be spurned.
I do not purport to have the definitive and final word on the topic of utilitarian views in relation to arts education, nor do I advance an ironclad definition of what "utilitarian" ought to mean.
Yet this does not mean that utilitarians have won and should pack up and go home happy.
Utilitarians face a tough challenge, but one that may not be insurmountable.
Although this first Geneva Convention dealt only with the treatment of the sick and wounded on the battlefield, for the first time the humanitarians were setting rules on how the utilitarians could conduct themselves on the battlefield.
The 1925 Geneva Gas Protocol, which outlawed the use of poison gas (but not its production or stockpiling), stands as the first successful attempt by the humanitarian school to deprive the utilitarians of one of their specific weapons used in warfare.
In later, more philosophically rigorous work--summarized in his Practical Ethics, a second edition of which has just been issued--he explicitly eschews the term rights, noting that, as a thoroughgoing utilitarian, he must deny not only that animals have moral rights, but also that human beings do.
For this reason, moral rights have been characterized as "trump cards" against utilitarian arguments.
They will need to dismantle what is unchristian and utilitarian
in their old way of thinking and replace it by a moral analysis that helps them to find the will of God in the choices of every day.
It's what's wrong with much of modern economic thought, this utilitarian
rationalism--in Stigler's political economy as against Friedman's, or in Richard Posner's law and economy as against Ronald Coase's.
punishment explicitly focused on utilitarian goals can satisfy
will not reoffend, the utilitarian might significantly reduce or