Low vowels 10 Mid vowels 9 High vowels 8 [??] 7 [l] 6 Nasals 5 [s] 4 Voiced fricatives 3 Unvoiced fricatives 2 Voiced stops 1 Unvoiced stops 0.5 By assigning sonority values to each of the articulations in the model words, we can arrive at one possible guide to identifying syllable onset, nucleus, and coda, on a phonetic basis.
Low vowels 8 Mid vowels 7 High vowels 6 [??] 5.5 [l] 5 Nasals 4.5 [s] 4 Voiced fricatives 3 Unvoiced fricatives 2 Voiced stops 1 Unvoiced stops 0.5 We shall employ these figures as a rough guide for our purposes.
Lowvowels [a][a][a] 10 Midvowels [e][[??]] [o] [c] [e] 9 Highvowels [i][u] 8 [r] 7 [l] 6 Nasals [m] [n] [n] [n] 5 [s] 4 Voiced fricatives [v][??][z][[??]] 3 Unvoiced fricatives [f][[theta]][s][[integral]][x] 2 Voiced stops [b][d][g] 1 Unvoiced stops
[p] [t] [k] 0.5 The values are relative only, and should not be thought of as numerical ratios.
Baxter (Handbook, 332ff.) observes that final voiced stops are rare in the world's languages and usually disappear, but this is not to the point, since he concedes that they exist, and since Karlgren originally reconstructed them precisely because they are lost more easily than unvoiced stops
(Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese [Paris: Geuthner, 1923], 28).