This revolution arose out of pious discontent, both Shiite and non-Shiite, with the Ummayyads
. It inaugurated the era of the great debate that is the focus of Robert Reilly's book: the debate concerning the theological issues common to all forms of monotheism--God's being and power, justice, reason, and human freedom--as well as some issues uniquely Islamic, such as the eternity or createdness of the Koran.
In the event, it led to the establishment of the caliphate as a familial dynasty, known historically as the Ummayyad dynasty, which ruled the Muslim empire from 661 to 750.
This familial usurpation of the right to rule only compounded the sense of injustice felt by the partisans of Ali, as did the fate of some of Ali's heirs and their partisans who resisted the Ummayyad ascendancy.
For instance, while Ali Zain Al Abidin (the son of Imam Hussein) was able to compromise and accept Ummayyad
rule, Mohammad Ibn Hanafiyah (son of Ali by a Hanafi woman), rebelled against the Ummayyads
in 687 AD.
Baqir continued with the accommodating approach towards the Ummayyads
taken by his father, but those Shiites displeased with this approach supported Zaid Ibn Ali, the younger brother of Zain Al Abidin.