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One scrapbook, actually primarily a photo album, seems to have been crafted as a linear, visual narrative of Arnott's time in Africa, starting with images of her trip across the Atlantic to Europe and on to the Umbundu highlands, progressing through her mission service, and closing with images from her journey home on furlough.
Her writings showed that she abhorred traditional Umbundu cultural practices such as polygyny and the drinking of local alcoholic beverages but also that she saw her individual students as highly intelligent and fully capable of leading their own churches and Christian communities.
Angola has three main ethnic groups, each speaking a Bantu language: Umbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, and Kikongo 13%.
Table 1: Number of years languages other than English were studied Language Number 3 Years 7 Years 12 Years Afrikaans 22 10 12 French 3 3 German 6 4 2 Oshindonga 11 1 3 7 Khoekhoegowab 3 1 2 Ndebele 1 1 Oshikwanyama 6 1 2 3 Oshiwambo 5 1 1 3 Otjiherero 1 1 Rukwangali 1 1 Shona 1 1 Table 2: First languages of respondents LANGUAGE NUMBER English 25 Oshikwanyama 9 Afrikaans 21 Oshiwambo 9 Oshindonga 9 Khoekhoegowab 7 German 2 Rukwangali 1 Subia 1 Silozi 1 Umbundu 1 Shona 1 Table 4: Languages studied at tertiary level LANGUAGE NUMBER Oshikwanyama 1 Otjiherero 1 Oshiwambo 4 Afrikaans 3 French 4 Portuguese 3 Oshindonga 3 German 3 TOTAL 21
Clearly, while some of Calunga's lexicon has terms of African origin--mostly from Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo (the latter probably to a lesser extent)--, its phonetics/phonology and morphosyntax are on par with the rural, regional Brazilian Portuguese vernacular known as portugues caipira ('Caipira Portuguese').
Indeed, Portuguese officials suspected Americans of undermining their authority by educating the Umbundu in the Angolan highlands.
The commercial economy of the Umbundu trading regimes of the region and of their Portuguese partners on the Atlantic coast was under the shock of a rubber depression which was troubling producers and traders alike.
Kimbundu, Umbundu) upon arrival to STP (38) and interpreters were needed to aid them.
His study concludes that the majority of the enslaved came from twenty-one linguistic groups and 116 ethnicities, with almost three-quarters identified as Kikongo, Kimbundu and Umbundu. What ethnicity and even language mean is not explained, however.
Quanto a propalada postura conformista do escravo com sua situacao de coisa de uso, animal que fala, depoe a instituicao do quilombo que, segundo ensina Munanga (1996), e palavra cuja origem aponta para o umbundu, idioma do povo ovimbundu: isso porque a raiz "-lombo", neste idioma da familia bantu, refere-se, com certeza, ao ritual da circuncisao; porem, entre este ritual e a formacao de estruturas de resistencia ao processo escravista, ha longa historia, modificando o significado e alcance do termo.
According to Ndonga (personal communication, January 2008), Professor of African Languages and Linguistics, Agustino Neto University, Luanda, Angola), these languages include kiKongo, kiMbundu, uMbundu, Cokwe, Ngangela, Luvale, oshiKwanyama, and otjiHerero, Fyote, Songo, Mbangala, Lunda, Ndembo, Nyaneka and Ngoya.
This consignment consists of Bibles in Otjiherero, Rukwangali, Silozi, Umbundu, Luchazi, Portuguese and English.
I am the one pushed aside, because I do not follow the blood of my Kimbundu mother, or the blood of my Umbundu father ...
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