In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of emphatic reduplication in Oroqen, a member of the northwestern branch of the Tungusic language family spoken in 12 towns in the northeast of China.
In the case of emphatic reduplication, it is also possible that the process entered into Oroqen via another Tungusic language, which in turn had borrowed it from Dagur (or another Mongolian language).
Emphatic reduplication is not found in every Chinese Tungusic language.
Xibe is thus the only Tungusic language that possesses emphatic reduplication that has been in sustained contact with Turkic over the last several hundred years.
Within Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages (i.
As the Tungusic languages fall into disuse, crucial data for issues such as the origin of emphatic reduplication will be lost forever.
Under the second scenario, emphatic reduplication was borrowed into Oroqen (or some ancestor of the language) as well as a number of other Tungusic languages.
Of course, these options are the typical possibilities put forth for nearly any similarity found among Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages, and, as is also typical, the interpretation of the data can be plausibly explained under either a genetic or a contact-based understanding of the relationship among these families.
One important consideration in this regard is the specific Tungusic languages in which emphatic reduplication is found: Xibe, Kile-Nanai (known as Hezhe `Hezhen' in China), Solon Evenki, and Oroqen.
Finally, the lack of diversity in the C2 slot in the reduplicated syllable within the Tungusic languages as compared to Turkic, at least, leads us to doubt that emphatic reduplication is a genetic feature of the Tungusic family.
There are, in summary, three sets of facts that militate against taking the process of reduplication as an inherited micro-Altaic trait: the distribution of Tungusic languages in which reduplication is found, Tungusic phonotactics, and the restricted number of C2 consonants in Tungusic.
However, like the Tungusic languages, Mongolic languages tend to have greater restrictions on C2 than do Turkic languages, manifesting at most [b] and some other labial (as in the case of Dagur and Kalmyk).