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Community similarity offers a means to examine the relationship between non-tree community composition and tree-line dynamics.
However, patterns of community structure are seldom considered as a means of understanding tree-line ecotone dynamics.
During the last three to four decades, new pines have become established at and above the upper limit of mature pine forest within the mountain birch tree-line ecotone and even in the alpine dwarf shrub-lichen heath on the mountains.
We had come across sporadic new pines accidentally during earlier field studies on the birch tree line (e.g., Holtmeier, 2005a; Holtmeier et al., 1996, 2003), so we expected that new pines had become established in the birch tree-line ecotone and lower alpine as a result of climatic warming during the last decades.
The tree-line in Wales is artifi-cial and misleading.
Here we find pockets of montane heath, scarce summit habitats than can be seen as a kind of tundra - land that is above the tree-line and below the permanent snow-line.
Tree-line forests, by definition, occupy areas on the extremes of species tolerance limits, and thus are likely to be sensitive to direct climate effects.
Using field surveys of existing forest patches along a latitudinal transect, I aim to quantify the reproductive potential of black spruce across the tree-line transition and identify past patterns in tree establishment.
An early tree-line experiment by a wilderness advocate: Bob Marshall's legacy in the Brooks Range, Alaska.
Already in earlier years, he had tried to substantiate his theories about the lack of time after glaciation for tree-line advance, but his attempts had failed.
However, in 1939, while mapping and exploring the upper Koyukuk area, he repeated his early tree-line experiment by sowing seeds of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) about 5 km north of the current tree line on two 3 X 3 m plots in Barrenland Creek.
This means that to attain an accurate forecast, we need to know (1) how the tree line has responded to climatic change and variability in the past and (2) what factors limit tree growth at high elevations in the region and therefore control tree-line dynamics.
A set of topoclimatic indices, including slope, aspect, and solar irradiance, has been modelled for the study area, and a suite of statistical techniques will be used to explore and quantify the relationships between these indices and the elevation, vegetation composition, and land cover pattern of the tree-line ecotone.
In the valley is the Vandans terminal; two intermediate stations at Latschau and Matschwitz cater for changes in direction in the line of the cables (in this system at least, they cannot go round corners), and high up above the tree-line is the Gruneck terminal, from which skiers and summer ramblers disembark for their encounters with the mountains.
On the forest-tundra and northern tree-lines: A preliminary synthesis.
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- Tree-Based Reliability Model
- Tree-Based Reliable Multicast Protocol
- Tree-Based Reparameterization
- Tree-Based Wireless Call Admission Control
- Tree-Climbing Fox
- Tree-Climbing Fox
- Tree-ear fungus
- Tree-ear mushroom
- tree-in-bud appearance
- tree-in-bud sign
- Tree-Kangaroo and Mammal Group
- Tree-Marking Normal Form
- Tree-Planting Machine
- Tree-Retardant Crosslinked Polyethylene
- tree-ring hydrology
- Tree-Ring Laboratory
- Tree-Ring Research
- Tree-Seed Drill
- Tree-Shared Multicasting
- Tree-Structured Belief Network
- Tree-Structured Vector Quantization
- Tree-Trellis Algorithm
- Tree-Walking Instruction Generator