Kawasaki disease (KD), first described by Tomisaku Kawasaki in Japan in 1967, is an acute febrile vasculitis in childhood and is the leading cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in the developed world.[sup], KD is characterized by prolonged fever, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, oral mucositis, cervical lymphadenopathy, induration and erythema of the extremities, and polymorphous skin rash.[sup], There was a trend of increasing incidence of KD in Beijing, varying from18 to 55/100,000 children <5 years of age from 1995 to 2004.[sup] Although the inflammatory response is found in small and medium vessels of the body, the most common sites of inflammation and end-organ damage are the coronary arteries.
First reported in the 1960s by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki of Japan, Kawasaki syndrome is an acute illness that affects almost every system in the body and one that is becoming increasingly common in Western countries.