ix-xx) is of great usefulness, especially to scholars in the early stages of Tocharian
The volume concludes with a specialist treatment of the Tocharian
fragments in pressmarks Or.
Some of the fragments contain text in Chinese, Sogdian, Uighur, and Tocharian
. These texts are mentioned, but not transcribed or described in detail.
Since we have already established that the first parts of the Japonic and Korean forms are probably borrowings of the Chinese transcription of 'Buddha', we can envisage that these words might follow the same structural pattern as in Turkic, Mongolian, and Tocharian
. This would be confirmed if we could find a donor for * k[[??]|a]i ~ [k|h](j)e 'king, lord', preferably near the Korean peninsula and in an area known for its old Buddhist tradition.
A Dictionaty of Tocharian
B: Second Edition, Revised and Greatly Enlarged.
If it is not already, this book will become an essential volume on the desk of researchers of Tocharian
While such cases led earlier Indo-Europeanists to speculate that a lost "interdental" series should be reconstructed for the ancestral language, it has since become widely accepted that such cases are better traced back to Indo-European tautosyllabic sequences of *dental + *palatal/*postpalatal--this is seen most clearly in Anatolian and Tocharian
A, where as reflexes of the term meaning `earth' we find tekan and tkam, respectively, as the cognates to Greek khthon-and Sanskrit ksam-(< IE *dhgh(e/o)m-).
He seems to propose three migratory waves of languages from the Proto-Indo-European homeland: wave A with one set of stop consonants (Tocharian
, Anatolian), wave B with three (Germanic, Italic, Greek, Indic, Armenian), and wave C with two (Celtic, Slavic, Baltic, Albanian, Iranian) (p.
For most of the century since their decipherment, the study of the Tocharian
languages has been notorious for its insularity and sectarianism.
George-Jean Pinault ("Further Links between the Indo-Iranian Substratum and the BMAC Language") brings together six cases (some of which have been discussed in other publications by the same author) where a suspected prehistoric loanword into Indo-Iranian may be compared to a noun or adjective in Tocharian
. Following the hypotheses of scholars such as Lubotsky and Witzel, Pinault suggests that such words were borrowed into Indo-Iranian and (pre-)Common Tocharian
(the prehistoric ancestor of the documented A and B languages) from a non-IE language of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological complex/Oxus Culture.
'enter' in Tocharian
, but have shifted to 'man' resp.
This monograph contains the first detailed investigation of the preterite participles (PPs) in both Tocharian
languages, their semantics as well as their formal history and development from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
But the agreement of Celtic and Tocharian
in showing *-lor is difficult to shrug off (these two dialects are even more dispersed, at least along an east-west axis, than Celtic and Indo-lranian, said elsewhere in this essay to virtually guarantee the Indo-European pedigree of a reconstructed form).
Mair suspects that the Xinjiang corpses are ancestors of the Tocharians
, who lived in China during the first millennium A.D.