To generate genetic distances, 79 COI sequences of Synodontidae from numerous western Atlantic localities were used.
Meek (1884) recognized Saurus anolis as valid in his systematic review of Synodontidae in the western Atlantic, but he stated the original description is "so insufficient that no certain identification can be made" (Meek, 1884: 134).
Our DNA barcoding analysis of Synodontidae in the Atlantic (Fig.
A thorough systematic revision of western Atlantic Synodontidae that incorporates both molecular and morphological data is needed, and it seems likely that additional new species may exist.
Appendix: Comparative material of western Atlantic Synodontidae examined in this study
Key to the western Atlantic species of Synodus This key is modified from a provisional key for Synodontidae constructed by Russell (2003).
and Blenniidae were rarely collected at current speeds >40 cm/sec, and small numbers of Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Carangidae, and Scombridae were collected at speeds up to 80 cm/sec.
Only four families, Pomacentridae, Labridae, Clupeidae, and Synodontidae, were eaten by P.
Demersal Benthic Midwater Adjacent sands Acanthuridae Blenniidae Caesionidae Creedidae Apogonidae Gobiidae Clupeidae Nemipteridae Balistidae Scorpaenidae Engraulidae Platycephalidae Labridae Fistulariidae Synodontidae Lutjanidae Monacanthidae Pomacentridae Plesiopidae Scaridae Serranidae Siganidae
IRI values were higher in Pomacentridae and Labridae at the closed reefs than at the open reefs, whereas the opposite pattern occurred for Scaridae and Synodontidae (Table 6).
Pomacentridae and Labridae, which ranked first and second respectively at all four reefs, were more important in the diet in the closed reefs, whereas Scaridae and Synodontidae were more important in the diet on open reefs.