The humanitarian disaster in Somalia was the result of two contributing factors: the warfare between the Barre government and the subsequent factional fighting between clans and sub-clans
and a period of severe drought.
In terms of tribal politics, al-Shabab has harnessed manpower support, for example, from the Gaaljecel and Duduble, sub-clans
of the Hawiye clan, and gained influence in their territories.
The present survey was carried out among the Tudu sub-clan
of the Kisku clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nowda Santal Para in Joypurhat district of Bangladesh.
Sabri Al-Ghul, a member of the sub-clan
, stated that they would use peaceful methods of resistance until they had their land returned to them.
The Harti are a sub-clan
of the widely dispersed Darod family and are located in Northeast Somalia, which is present-day Puntland.
On the page Schroter directs us to, Arndt employs the term cili-bhou for what he calls a sub-clan
(Klanteil; literally 'clan part').
Within the web of clan and warlord conflicts, General Morgan and his forces historically clashed with the Jubba Valley Alliance led by Colonel Bare Hirale and Dabare and Luway sub-clans
both from the Digil-Mirifle clan.
General Aideed leads the Habr Gedir sub-clan
and Mohammed "Bod" the Abgal one.
Among the most prominent of those arrested was Ali Aref Bourhan, a member of the Hassoba sub-clan
from Tadjoura who was one of the French-favoured leaders of the territory prior to 1977.
Though Somalia is one of the most homogeneous countries in Africa - Somalis speak the same language, are nearly all Sunni Muslims, and trace their heritage back to a common ancestor - it is riven by clan, sub-clan
, and family loyalties and enmities.
Bushra Maneka, stated to be in her 40s, is from the Wattoo clan, of which the Manekas are a sub-clan
He was the 24th Nyeya of the Adongo Anyuak monarchy sub-clan
at age 48.
Observers said that the fact all 11 candidates who stayed in the race were from the Majerten, itself a sub-clan
of the regionally dominant Darood group, increased the chances of the poll going ahead peacefully.
But Ghandi, who not only comes from the diaspora but also a minority sub-clan
in the area, faces potential reluctance of neighbor Ethiopia and the Somali government to back his efforts.
The seed of Somalia's problems is clan-versus-clan violence, and one criticism that Gedi, 55, was never able to shake was that he did not wield much clout, even within his own sub-clan
, the Abgal.