Survey of rookeries and haulouts of Steller sea lion
(Eumetopias jubatus) in the Kuril Islands and preliminary results on their abundance [Uchet beregovykh lezhbishch sivuchey (Eumetopias jubatus) na Kuril'skikh ostrovakh i orientirovochnoe opredelenie ikh chislennosti].
This model is used to describe optimal harvest levels of the pollock, which is preyed upon by the endangered Steller sea lion
. Society cares about the harvest because people like eating fish but people also care about the endangered species, perhaps due to its existence, scientific or recreation value, moral imperatives, or the need to maintain an ecologically important species (Finnoff and Tschirhart 2003a: 163).
To address this constraint, we specifically developed the life history transmitter (LHX tag; Wildlife Computers (1), Redmond, WA; described in Horning and Hill, 2005) to detect and determine causes of Steller sea lion
mortality irrespective of time and location of mortality, or age of host.
The 2011 sighting of the Humboldt Penguin reported here was recorded during a 1-d research survey of Steller Sea Lions
on Willoughby and Split Rocks conducted by the Makah Tribe.
Steller sea lion
numbers declined dramatically beginning in the 1970's, and the species was initially listed as threatened in 1990.
The Northern or Steller sea lion
(Eumetopias jubatus) is the largest of the sea lions, measuring up to 11 feet long and weighing up to a ton.
In spring 1998, Greenpeace, the American Oceans Campaign, and Sierra Club Alaska joined forces to sue the NMFS under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for failing to protect the critical foraging habitat of the Steller sea lion
. Since lack of food is the problem, they argued, it makes no sense to allow major fisheries to target pollock -- the Stellers' prime prey -- within sea lions' critical habitat.
These include: declines in Steller sea lion
and sea otter populations in Alaska; decreases in salmon populations in British Columbia and Washington State; increased populations of fish such as pollock in the Bering Sea; changes in food supply for sea birds; and changes in the migration of gray whales.
Environmentalists have called for action to save the western stock of the Steller sea lion
, which has been listed as endangered by the U.S.
Moreover, the documented prey items of GOA transients are notably different from those of the AT1 transients and include Steller sea lion
(Eumetopias jubatus) (Saulitis et al., 2000; Heise et al., 2003; Maniscalco et al., 2007).
Experimental harvest of the Steller Sea Lion
in Alaskan waters.
Other animals in the top 10 species-by-species expenditures were the Steller sea lion
, coho salmon, bull trout, sockeye salmon, red-cockaded woodpecker, pallid sturgeon, chum salmon, and right whale.
The Steller sea lion
, Eumetopias jubatus, is widely distributed in the waters of the North Pacific Ocean and ranges along the west coast of North America from California to Alaska reaching the Bering Strait and the Asia coast.
However, it is also home to the Steller sea lion
, a large marine mammal whose numbers have declined precipitously in the last several decades.
The depletion of certain fish stocks, such as Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), affects nonhuman consumers as well, and such depletion may be contributing to the decline of species such as the endangered Steller sea lion
(Eumetopias jubatus) in the Aleutian Islands (Hills, 2000).