They have observed that while the magnitude of the primary minimum stays roughly the same, the magnitude of the secondary minimum varies from year to year, which is believed to be caused by starspot
Proxima Centauri - which is just one-tenth as massive and only one-thousandth as luminous as our Sun - exhibits a regular cycle of starspots
, much like our parent star's sunspot activity.
The lightcurve simulation led to two interesting features being identified; a hotspot and two starspots
They are following up with further ground-based observations and intend to model the lightcurves to establish the parameters of the binary system and its starspot
In the abundance work as well as in some of their more recent starspot
work, the Santa Cruz group has used a mathematical process known as maximum entropy to solve some of the ambiguities in the simple line profile work.
Although Bonfils and his colleagues searched for starspots
, GJ 581 appeared to be starspot
-free during their observations.
B is also near the maximum of its 8-year starspot
cycle, adding additional noise.
Astronomers discovered the system's close alignment by watching the tiny dip in light created as each planet crossed the same starspot
If funded, these missions will measure the three-dimensional motions of galaxies in our Local Group, probe the atmospheric compositions of possible Earth-like exoplanets, and monitor starspot
cycles on nearby solar analogs to help us understand our Sun's variability.
The existence of a strong magnetic field was itself inferred from the presence of these starspots
The investigations focused on the detailed properties of these stars and confirmed that Sun-like stars with large starspots
can experience superflares.
To measure a star's spin, astronomers look for changes in its brightness caused by dark spots, known as starspots
, crossing the star's surface.
These stars have large starspots
, which are much larger than those of our sun," says astronomer and study coauthor Hiroyuki Maehara.
A sampling of topics: the microstructure of a sunspot penumbra, penumbral moving magnetic features, SOLIS-VSM solar vector magnetograms, multigrid methods for polarized radiative transfer, tunable narrow-band filter for imaging polarimetry, the diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter, a brief overview of the Second Solar Spectrum, polarizability factors for molecular bands, spectro-polarimetry of cool stars, molecular diagnostics of the internal structure of starspots
and sunspots, and the effect of turbulent electric fields on the scattering polarization of hydrogen lines.
in K2's data enabled the astronomers to clock the dwarf's rotation period at 3.