Teachers observed the children in the classroom and provided a score of 1 or 0 for each item on the test; teachers returned completed test record forms for determination of raw scores, standard scores
, and percentile rankings.
As for the variance, the Monte-Carlo simulations yielded a null squared standard score
of 3.210 for the 20-trial case compared to an experimental mean of 3.525.
The resulting standard score
means for users, triers, and nonusers were -.48 (SD = .43), -.23 (SD = .39), and .20 (SD = .36), respectively.
Students with WS scored lower in nine of ten subtests of the PA test, compared to standard scores
for children with same age and education level.
It is encouraging that only a small percentage of students ended first grade with standard scores
below 91 (the 25th percentile) for word reading (4.30% on Word Attack and 7.20% on Letter Word Identification); however, in terms of their comprehension, 19.40% had standard scores
below 91 on passage comprehension.
An examination of the bivariate relationships between scores indicated that there were no significant correlations between age and any of the subscales of the TTCT Figural B or Verbal B scores, the average standard scores
of the TTCT Verbal or Figural instruments, or the three dimensions of VIEW.
The overall mean score gain was 7.4 words correct (raw score), 7.8 points (standard score
), 8.2 months (actual age-equivalent), and 4.2 months (corrected age-equivalent).
Although it is unknown why the number of youth in each disability category differs across sites, it is clear that students with the MR label had much lower average standard scores
in all reading areas than those in other disability categories.
Those who scored at or below the 40th percentile (standard score
of 96) on the composite score were defined as struggling readers; those who scored above the 40th percentile were defined as proficient readers.
STW total scores were converted into standard scores
using age-corrected normative tables presented in the manual.
Although the WRAT-3 yields both raw and standard scores
, we chose to use standard scores
in our analyses to assess performance and changes in performance relative to the age cohort.
A standard score
like this makes that knowledge accessible and actionable — which in turn makes it a lot easier for our brand partners to maximize every dollar they spend."
In this model, the standard score
(z score) is used as a criterion for dividing the abnormal pattern of the system user and the normal pattern.
From a psychometric standpoint, we examined performance of an intellectual developmental disorder sample, and scores falling within seven relevant standard score
ranges were compared to the percent predicted from the normal curve.
In addition, grade 3 students scored 16 points higher than the National Standard Score
for math proficiency; grade 4 scored 13 points higher; and grade 5 scored 17 points higher.