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rock that form the continuous lower layer of the earth's crust

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Ou-yang Hsiu in his writings frequently lamented the failures of former dynasties, while Ssu-ma Kuang's masterpiece, Tzu-chih t'ung-chien (General Mirror for the Aid of Government), is nothing if not didactic and cautionary.
To give substance to this judgment, Ssu-ma Ch'ien took all known accounts written over the intervening three centuries that purported to describe Confucius, following the principle that if there was no clear reason for discarding an item of biographical information, then he should include it, leaving for later generations the task of winnowing the true from the false.
Having constructed this formidable image of a successful Confucius, Ssu-ma Ch'ien was confronted by the need to explain the reasons for Confucius's fall from grace in Lu and for his subsequent wanderings in search of rulers worthy of his service.
However, it is very strange that Ssu-ma Ch'ien should have written two separate biographies of "Ch'un-y[ddot{u}] K'un," as though there were two contemporary personages of the same appellation: Shih-chi 1267.
According to Ssu-ma Ch'ien's biography in the Hanshu [CHINESE TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ten of the 130 Shih-chi chapters were missing by the second half of the first century A.
On the assumption that the "Yueh-chi" is indeed the earlier text, Ssu-ma Chen's observation that it served as the blueprint for the "Yueh-shu" can hardly be challenged.
Canberra, 1989) and Achilles Fang's classic work, The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220-265): Chapters 6978 from the Tzu chih t'ung chien of Ssu-ma Kuang (2 vols.
In an essay here by Stephen Durrant, the principal historical source for the study of the First Emperor, Ssu-ma Ch'ien's (145-85?
The mighty First Emperor's vain effort to construct his own historical persona and obliterate the memory of all of the Warring States except Ch'in were both undone by the humble brush of the Grand Historian Ssu-ma Ch'ien.
She draws on material from two texts by Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-86) and one by Yuan Ts'ai (ca.
Although later impressions of the Chungs centered on the aesthetics of calligraphy, we must not forget their roles as advisers to the Ts'ao and Ssu-ma courts.
After receiving a disturbing order from Ssu-ma Chao to hold off capturing the chief rebels in Shu and to wait for Lo-yang troops, Hui forged a palace document of the recently deceased Ts'ao empress-dowager that purportedly empowered Hui to dismiss Ssu-ma Chao.
1) This new, fragmented arrangement of historical data allowed Ssu-ma Ch'ien to approach events from diverse angles, and indeed he sometimes narrates a single incident more than once, in different chapters, from slightly different points of view.
4) More recently, Hsu Fu-kuan has proposed that Ssu-ma Ch'ien used the tables to highlight key events.