The outer, beta keratin-rich layer of the squamate epidermis bears intricate fine sculpturing (microornamentation), which varies from base to apex of an individual scale.
Scanning electron microscopy of changes in epidermal structure occurring during the shedding cycle in squamate reptiles.
Close-up photography and high-definition video also reveal the extraordinary world of squamates
Patterns of covariation in life history traits of squamate
reptiles: the effects of size and phylogeny reconsidered.
are vertebrates (organisms with a backbone) that don't have bodily processes for controlling their internal temperature.
These include crocodylians, turtles, squamates
and lissamphibians (Wilson 1986; Runkel 1988).
The vast majority of comparative studies of life history in squamates
have included predominantly or solely oviparous taxa (Sinervo and Licht, 1991; Uller and Olsson, 2007; Ji et al.
Head-size dimorphism, which is common in squamates
, is a trait that may be influenced by both ecological segregation as well as by sexual selection (Shine 1991).
, freezing survival is even less common.
However, the incubation environment also influences egg mass, hatchling size, incubation time, and sexual differentiation in several turtles and squamates
(Bull and Vogt, 1979; Muth, 1980; Packard et al.
Predators can exert strong selective pressures on prey organisms, and squamates
employ a variety of behaviors that appear to have evolved to aid in avoidance of predators (Greene, 1988).
Area of habitat was correlated with abundances of nine species of squamates
in the patchy Florida scrub (McCoy and Mushinsky, 1999).
Enge (2001) reported that funnel traps could be used as the sole trapping method, except when looking for fossorial and semi-fossorial squamates
that are caught more frequently in pitfall traps.
However, such values are based upon studies that dealt with entirely diurnal squamates
, such as various genera of desert lizards, or are from snakes that mostly are diurnal.
Because maximal locomotion is infrequent during normal activity of squamates
(Hertz et al.