7 shows the comparison of the spectral radiance
difference vectors between the reference HSI and the result of each method.
where [L.sub.[lambda]] is the spectral radiance
at the sensor's aperture at TOA ([Wm.sup.-2][Sr.sup.-1] [micro][m.sup.-1]), [M.sub.[rho]] is the multiplicative scaling factor or the data product "gain" in [Wm.sup.-2][Sr.sup.-1] [micro][m.sup.-1]/DN, [A.sub.[rho]] is the rescaled bias or the data product "offset" in [Wm.sup.-2][Sr.sup.-1] [micro][m.sup.-1], [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the spectral radiance
scaled to [QCAL.sub.min] ([Wm.sup.-2] [Sr.sup.-1] [micro][m.sup.-1]), [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the spectral radiance
scaled to [QCAL.sub.max] ([Wm.sup.-2][Sr.sup.-1] [micro][m.sup.-1]), [QCAL.sub.max] is the maximum DN (255), and QCAL is the quantized calibrated pixel values in DN, specific to a sample site point.
where L[lambda] is TOA spectral radiance
(watts/([m.sup.2] x srad x [micro]m)), [M.sub.L] and [M.sub.P] are band-specific multiplicative rescaling factor extracted from MTL file, AL and AP are band-specific additive rescaling factor extracted from MTL file, DN is quantized and calibrated standard digital number values and [[rho].sub.[lambda]?] is TOA planetary reflectance, without correction for solar angle.
where [B.sub.[lambda]] is spectral radiance
, [lambda] is wavelength, T is temperature, h is Planck's constant, c is speed of light, and [k.sub.b] is Boltzmann's constant.
(ii) [L.sub.min] = 1.238 (Spectral radiance
of DN value 1),
It provided SI-traceable detector-based spectral radiance
validation of the integrating sphere sources and illuminated diffuse plaques that are used for inter-comparison and pre-launch calibration of the SeaWiFS instrument.
Heavily polluted areas have a spectral radiance
which differs with a clear sky area and hence the solar panels for use in these two different regions/locales need to be custom designed to optimally absorb the majority of the photons in that particular locale.
He describes spectroscopic principles from the perspectives of classical electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanical theory, spectroscopy from the standpoint of measured spectral properties, remotely sensed spectral radiance
, and imaging system, dispersive spectrometer, and Fourier transform spectrometer design and analysis, as well as additional designs, imaging spectrometer calibration, atmospheric compensation, spectral data models, and hyperspectral image classification and target detection.
Spectrally selective coatings and associated methods for minimising the effects of lighting strikes (discloses a method for reducing structural damage to a substrate resulting from interaction between the substrate and a plasma, the method including the steps of identifying a wavelength at which a spectral radiance
of the plasma is at a peak, the wavelength being a function of a temperature of the plasma, preparing a coating capable of imparting to the substrate a threshold electromagnetic reflectivity over a spectral band about the wavelength, and applying the coating to the substrate.
For an ETM+ image, thermal band image data calibration is performed in a two-step process as proposed by the Landsat Project Science Office (2002): (a) conversion of the digital number (DN) values of band 6 into the spectral radiance
(L) ([Wm.sup.-2] [sr.sup.-1] [lm.sup.-1]) using the following equation: L = 0.0370588DN + 3.2
Solar insolation I(T) and its spectral radiance
I([lambda], T) related as follows
If spectral signatures are recorded properly and the curve shape is accurate they could be used for remote sensing applications .Spectra can be thought of as points in a dimensional scatter plot, where n is the number of bands .The coordinates of the points in n-space consists of "n" values that are simply the spectral radiance
or reflectance values in each band for a given pixel.
For UV radiance calibration and Lambertian solar simulation, the company's XTH Uniform Source Systems generate a uniform radiance field which approximates the spectral radiance
of a 100% Albedo source, or the spectral curve of the ASTM Standard D65.
Emitted spectral radiance
L at wavelength [lambda] from a surface at thermodynamic temperature [T.sub.s] is given by multiplying the Planck function by spectral emissivity [epsilon]([lambda]) (Zhengming, 1999).
To convert the Digital Number (DN) ranging from 0-255 of the Landsat ETM+TIR band into spectral radiance
, the following equation was used :