Despite finding the imagery involved in hauntology problematic, I believe there is something valuable in this concept of history that can be teased out, since there are elements within the ideas and thinkers which Derrida describes as specters that can be useful for theorising about the contemporary and offer us something for the future.
As Sim argues, Derrida is trying to be iconoclastic in Specters of Marx, by trying to resurrect the reputation of Marx at Marx's lowest point in intellectual history i.
However, in the conclusion, I will show how the ideas of hauntology and specters could be applied to other possible or plausible specters e.
In Specters of Marx, Derrida is seeking to make the claim that Marxism (18) is not something we can escape, ignore or overcome; it is part of the tapestry of our culture and cannot, therefore, just end.
This is to see whether we must construct the idea of specters and hauntology as one side of a binary to the Modernist-Enlightenment theory of a history which can reach an end point.
I have discussed Marx's specter in detail, as this is the specter which Derrida invokes to produce his theory of hauntology; however, the idea of specters and the theory of hauntology is not limited to Marx.
Instead, hauntology shows that there are specters, whose thoughts require liberal democracy to forever reconceptualise and reinterpret itself in order to ensure that the individual: does not become subject to tyranny/subordination; is recognised as an equal, and can develop a sense of dignity and self-worth.
This paper has shown that the idea of hauntology provides a valuable way of thinking about time and history, and the specters which Derrida invokes are useful to contemporary political thinking, since they point to problems within our system of thought.