Urging the South to pause and reflect, he argued that Lincoln was still bound by the protections of the Constitution and, reiterating a position widely advanced by Southern unionists, he maintained that slavery was safer within the Union than outside of it.
By the end of 1860 he was reaching a larger audience than any other Southern Unionist.
Southern Unionist Pamphlets and the Civil War (Columbia: Univ.
TABLE 2 Comparison of Unionist Sentiment of Southern Unionists with That of Abraham Lincoln
The irreconcilable clash between Lincoln and even Southern unionists occurred on the question of slavery.
Below is a side-by-side comparison of the Southern unionist statements following the Compromise of 1850 with Lincoln's statements in 1861:
Worse yet, as "irregulars" targeted Union soldiers and terrorized civilians, they brought down on Southern communities increasingly ruthless reprisals from Southern Unionists
and Federal commanders who embraced "collective punishment" as a means of rooting out bushwhackers.
Determined to forge a new nation, secessionists successfully depicted Southern Unionists as disreputable and unprincipled.
Afterwards, Lost Cause apostles continued to vilify Southern Unionists on the grounds that honorable men had no other choice than to support the Confederacy.
In this revision of her dissertation, the author makes an important contribution to the increasing literature examining the lives and beliefs of Southern unionists
at the local level.
Likewise, Confederate partisans adopted this mode of warfare to avenge themselves on Southern Unionists
in their midst.
Where Belz (as well as Trefousse, Les Benedict, McCrary, and Cox) argues that Lincoln's reconstruction policies shifted from conservative to radical over the course of the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation as the catalyst, Harris understands Lincoln to have promoted a "self-reconstruction" from start to finish-a reconstruction that focused more on bolstering Southern Unionists than appeasing radical Republicans (56-57).
Focusing on the interplay between Southern Unionists and federal military officers who sought to reinvigorate "loyal control" Harris offers a unique perspective on the Civil War (4).
These Southern Unionists were to be found mostly in the mountains that ran through the western parts of Virginia and North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, into northern Georgia and Alabama, and in the hilly regions of northwest Arkansas.
In this article, by Southern Unionists I mean those who resisted secession, opposed the Confederate war effort, and sought to restore their states to the Union.