Because of the amity-enmity system, Northeastern Pai imported Pacific Coast marine shell from the Halchedom trading center or from Southern Paiute trading partners north of the Colorado River.
Cherum traded Navajo-made blankets to the Cottonwood Island Chemehuevis for horses, and then traded horses to the Southern Paiute labor gangs at St.
Fowler spent three decades studying hot-desert cultures: the Southern Paiute
tribes in southern Nevada and California, and the Death Valley Shoshone tribe in California.
In 1889, in his forties, Chief-cum-labor-contractor Cherum took the leading role along with shaman Indian Jeff in importing the Ghost Dance from Southern Paiutes to the Pais.
Using messengers, War Chief Cherum mobilized 250 Western Pai, Havasupai, and refugee Southern Paiute warriors to attack the ten-man garrison at Beale's Springs on 30 May 1867, killing one but losing five(42) That was the largest-scale Native mobilization during the conflict.
Cherum again traveled north to consult his Southern Paiute mentors.
The Haikoos still dominated the ethnic Pai and Southern Paiute "Holy Lands.
After this treaty, Mormon reliance on Southern Paiute labor declined, and the Southern Paiutes were systematically excluded from labor positions in Mormon settlements.
Kanab Creek is an ecoscape for Southern Paiutes because it represents a unique combination of topography, plants, and animals that played a key role in Paiute aboriginal adaptive strategies.
Traditionally, Southern Paiutes had a system of trails and specialists who moved along them carrying messages, goods, and services.
The various cultural landscape concepts presented in this essay closely reflect how Southern Paiutes perceive that their cultural resources fit together.
We infer the Goshutes and Southern Paiutes fled because some had contracted the diseases the emigrants carried, and that some of them died.
One possible gloss is moa ("mosquito") pah ("water")(15) suggesting that mosquitoes were present when Southern Paiutes colonized that riverine oasis.
Some Southern Paiutes adjusted to Mormon intrusion by laboring with and for the colonists; others left to find refuge beyond the expanding area of Mormon penetration.
In that same year, Southern Paiutes residing in Mormon colonized territory lived in labor gangs, each residing in a Native ghetto next to a Mormon agricultural (or mine camp) village.