, circulation and stance balance in elderly dysvascular transtibial amputees.
Anticipation can also be observed in a variety of domains, including vision, somatosensation
, reward, and emotion.
The postural control was influenced by visual, vestibular and somatosensation
inputs (Nagy et al.
Sherrington first defined proprioception as afferent information traveling to the central nervous system (CNS) in 1906, which encompasses a number of different components including kinesthesia, somatosensation
, balance, reflexive joint stability, and JPS .
As the sentinel portal to the respiratory system, the nose and upper respiratory tract subserve a number of critical functions in humans: warming and humidifying incoming air, trapping and desorbing particulates and vapors, and the sensory functions of olfaction (smell) and chemical somatosensation
(irritation or chemesthesis) (Dalton and Opiekun 2006).