According to Michinel and Paredes, this 'dark matter optics' approach can be applied to the study of other cosmic phenomena, such as the coalescence of solitons
in relation to galactic mergers or the interactions between dark matter and supermassive black holes, which can be easily modelled as 'dot potentials'.
In section 3, we investigate Ricci solitons
in a N(k)-manifold admitting [omega]([xi], X)*W = 0 where [omega] and W stand for quasi conformai like curvature tensor with the associated scalar triples ([bar.a], [bar.b], [bar.c]) and (a, b, c) respectively, the dot means that [omega](X, Y) acts as a derivation on W.
At the point when solitons
heartbeats are found commonly far separated, each of them is a crossing wave with consistent shape and speed.
Such ensembles of waves are known, for example, for the KdV solitons
 and for the Schrodinger solitons
; the interaction of fields may also result in ensembles of waves like in thermoelasticity .
In the process of propagation, the behavior of the spectrum is similar to the pulse behavior in the case of the soliton
In , Zhang used Bell polynomial theories to generate lump-kink solutions, lumps with one-stripe solitons
and lumps with two-stripe solitons
for (1), but he supposed that z = x to minimize the number of independent variables and so studied the equation in a (2+1)dimensional domain.
be amplified without creating radiation in the process?
where A represent the amplitudes of the solitons
and [mu] represents the solitons
The results indicate that the shape of internal solitons
is governed by the sign of the coefficient [alpha] at the quadratic term and thus internal solitons
propagating along this transect have exclusively negative polarity in winter.
In this paper, a remarkable pulse compression is realized through utilizing soliton
Numerical results of the Rosenau-KdV equation are obtained for four test problems: the motion of single solitary wave, interaction of two and three solitary waves, evolution of solitons
with undular bore initial condition.
Editors Rho and Zahed present readers with the second edition of their collection of reviews by the worldAEs leading physicists or the Skyrme hypothesis of 1960, that fermions can arise from bosons via topographical solitons
. The editors have organized the twenty-five selections that make up the main body of the text in three parts devoted to hadrons and nuclear matter, condensed matter, and string theory.
A comparison with known (exact) results will be given in Section 6 while Section 7 contains the predicted VPE for the solitons
of the [[phi].sup.6] model.
However, in the nonlinear case above some threshold value of the signal amplitude, the propagation of solitons
takes place as associated eigen-solutions of the specific nonlinear setting.
Boyd, "Coupled-mode envelope solitary waves in a pair of cubic Schrodinger equations with cross modulation: Analytical solution and collisions with applicaion to Rossby waves," Chaos, Solitons
& Fractals, vol.